FINAL TO SUBMIT.pdf

FINAL TO SUBMIT.pdf - 2018 Preliminary Design Review...

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2018 Preliminary Design Review AER1216: FUNADMENTALS OF UAV GROUP G Anantha Ranga Sri Sravya Kandalam (SID 1004644977) Qihan Fan (SID 1004700308) Ammar Mansoor (SID 1005599292)
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Contents 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 2 2. Competitor analysis ................................................................................................................ 3 2.1. Why use drones for delivery? .......................................................................................... 3 2.2. Hypothetical Location ...................................................................................................... 3 2.3. Understanding the task .................................................................................................... 4 3. Configuration .......................................................................................................................... 6 3.1. Fixed-Wing Vs Multi-rotor ................................................................................................ 6 3.1.1. Fixed wing ................................................................................................................. 6 3.1.2. Multi-rotors ............................................................................................................... 6 3.1.3. Concepts 1 and 2 ....................................................................................................... 7 3.2. A possible third configuration .......................................................................................... 8 4. Selection of aircraft layout ...................................................................................................... 9 4.1. Engine configuration ........................................................................................................ 9 4.2. Wing configuration ......................................................................................................... 10 4.2.1. Position ................................................................................................................... 10 4.2.2. Aspect ratio ............................................................................................................. 10 4.2.3. Chord variation along span ..................................................................................... 11 4.2.4. Wing sweep ............................................................................................................. 11 4.3. Tail configuration ........................................................................................................... 11 5. Initial Sizing ........................................................................................................................... 12 5.1. Constraint analysis ......................................................................................................... 12 5.2. Mass estimate ................................................................................................................ 14 5.3. System sizing .................................................................................................................. 15 5.3.1. Mission Profile ........................................................................................................ 15 5.3.2. Propulsion system sizing ......................................................................................... 16 5.3.3. Wing and tail geometry sizing ................................................................................. 18 6. Conclusion and Future work ................................................................................................. 20 6.1. Future work .................................................................................................................... 20 6.2. Considerations for structure and stability ..................................................................... 20 List of References .......................................................................................................................... 21
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1. Introduction The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) industry has grown rapidly over the last few decades. These vehicles have a wide spectrum of applications ranging from military applications such as surveillance and reconnaissance to agricultural missions such as crop growth monitoring to recreational use. These drones also vary in size, from the General Atomics Predator which weighs more than 500 kg to the Black Hornet Nano which weighs only a few grams. This report provides a brief review of the preliminary design process used for one such UAV. The UAV is tasked with the delivery of a certain product within a certain area. To start the design process, a study of the customer requirements, in addition to other regulations set forth by federal authorities must be completed. A competitor analysis is then performed to investigate the current scope of UAV’s for delivery applications. A comparison is drawn between three different aircraft configuration: Fixed-wing, Multi-Rotor and Hybrid. The advantages and drawback of each comparison is then discussed. Based on these, three early concept designs are presented along with their drawbacks. The final concept, driven by the other concepts is then discussed. A constraint analysis is then performed to find the optimum design points. Initial sizing of the wing, fuselage and tail geometries will then be reviewed. The selected configurations for the wing, fuselage etc., will then be justified. Finally, some stability and structural considerations, to take forward to the final design review will also be presented.
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2. Competitor analysis 2.1. Why use drones for delivery? Delivery times have reduced rapidly over the last few years. These days, companies like Amazon have average delivery times of a couple of days. The question that these companies then ask is what can be done to take it to the next step and stay competitive. Delivery drones could be one possible solution. Figure 1, compares the delivery times and costs for current delivery options and for future options like drones. The figure shows that drones could deliver a 5lb package within 30 minutes. Another advantage of drones, is reduced human labor costs. These drones,
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