BIOLOGY II EXAM REVIEW.docx - BIOLOGY II 3rd EXAM REVIEW...

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BIOLOGY II, 3 rd EXAM REVIEW: CHAPTER 22: 1) Darwin originally defined evolution as __________. ANS: descent with modification 2) Which of the following is a key observation that must be explained in a unifying theory about life? ANS: Many basic characteristics are shared by all living things. 3) The scala naturae , or scale of nature, is based on the ideas of __________. ANS: Aristotle 4) At the time Darwin voyaged on HMS Beagle , the popularly accepted theory in Western culture that explained the origin of Earth's plants and animals held that the various species __________. ANS: had been created by divine intervention a few thousand years before 5) Carolus Linnaeus is considered to be the founder of __________, and he __________. ANS: the binomial classification system ... thought that resemblances among different species reflected the pattern of their creation 6) The modern idea of extinction as a common occurrence in Earth's history was first proposed in the early 19th century writings of __________. ANS: Cuvier 7) Lyell's principle of uniformitarianism __________. ANS: strongly influenced Darwin's view of how living organisms could change over time 8) Which of the following is a true statement about Charles Darwin? ANS: He proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution. 9) At the time Charles Darwin sailed on HMS Beagle , __________. ANS: several biologists had proposed that species might change over time, but none had suggested a convincing mechanism that might cause the change 10) Because he was well aware of the effect his theory of evolution would have on the public and on the Church of England, Darwin delayed publishing his work for several decades while he gathered additional evidence. After invoking selective breeding of domesticated species as evidence that groups of organisms are capable of change, he then proposed that natural
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populations can change as well. On which two lines of evidence did he base this proposal? ANS: Organisms within a population vary, and all populations produce more offspring than can be supported by the environment, resulting in competition for survival within the population. 11) During his voyage around the world, Darwin was inspired to think about evolution by __________. ANS: All of the listed responses are correct. 12) In Darwin's view of descent with modification __________. ANS: natural selection can improve the match between an organism and its environment 13) What insight did Darwin gain from reading Thomas Malthus's essay on human suffering? ANS: Organisms have the capacity to produce more offspring than the environment can support. 14) The breeding of plants and animals for particular traits by humans is called ANS: artificial selection 15) During periods of rapid environmental change, what may happen to a species that was well-suited to the former environment? ANS: All of the listed responses are correct.
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