Alcohol - Alcohol Alcohol: What is it? Alcohol (ethyl...

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Alcohol
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Alcohol: What is it? Alcohol (ethyl alcohol): t he product of fermentation of natural sugars and/or distillation of the fermented products a psychoactive drug a CNS depressant the second most widely used and abused of all psychoactive drugs addictive a social lubricant Why?
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Alcohol: It is a Drug Why many people view alcohol as a non- drug? It is legal Large distribution and sales Long history of use Advertising & media promote drinking as normal
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How much is “one drink”? 1 five-ounce glass of wine 5 x 0.12 = 0.60 oz alcohol 1 twelve-ounce beer 12 x 0.045 = 0.54 oz alcohol 1 1.5-ounce shot of 80-proof liquor 1.5 x 0.40 = 0.60 oz alcohol 1 twelve-ounce bottle of wine cooler 12 x 0.05 = 0.60 oz alcohol
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Brief History of Alcohol Fermented honey : first alcoholic beverage – 8000 B.C. Beer: first brewery – Egypt in 3700 B.C. Wine: first records – territory of modern Iran 5400 B.C. 1830 the peak drinking period th century Temperance movement (1830–1850) Prohibition era (1920–1933) Ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment (1919) Alcohol was outlawed (January 1920) In 1933 the 21st Amendment repealed prohibition Increase in popularity
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Alcohol Today An enormous business today: - $ 116 billion/year on purchase of alcohol in the US - $ 1.42 billion/year spent on advertising Beer – 88% of the overall alcoholic beverage market Alcohol consumption ↓ since late 1970s 20 % of population – 80 % of alcohol supply 2001 survey of drinking habits of the college students: - 44% binge drinking 2 weeks prior -common report of people required to complete alcohol assessments – I drink equally or less than my social network - 20% reported abstinence
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Prevalence At least 5% of Americans are alcoholic, and the estimate is that the number is closer to somewhere between 5-10% of the adult population Alcoholism plays a major role in the following causes of death: accidents, homicide, suicide, and alcoholic cirrhosis Of the 160 million Americans who are old enough to drink legally, 112 million do so. Comorbidity 30-50% of alcoholics meet criteria for major depression 33% of alcoholics have a coexisting anxiety disorder 36% of alcoholics are also addicted to other drugs
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Pharmacodynamics small molecule highly soluble in water & moderately soluble in fat easily absorbed through gastrointestinal tract (does not need digestion)
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Pharmacodynamics It is difficult, if not impossible to identify the mechanism of the action of alcohol due to its wide variety of behavioral and neurochemical effects. In the past, it was believed that alcohol was a general anesthetic and depressant by dissolving the cell
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Alcohol - Alcohol Alcohol: What is it? Alcohol (ethyl...

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