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DM-endocrine study guide-test #2

DM-endocrine study guide-test #2 - Nur 265 Diabetes...

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Nur 265 Diabetes Mellitus/Endocrine Disorders Study Guide (Learning Activities ) 1. Negative feedback is the type of control for hormone synthesis because the hormone causes the opposite action of the initial condition. If for example glucose levels rise, insulin is secreted to lower the glucose levels, thus the action of the hormone insulin is the opposite of the condition that stimulated insulin secretion (high blood glucose). 2. The hypothalamus is considered the master gland because it produces regulatory hormones that either stimulate or inhibit the release of anterior pituitary hormones. 3. Mineralcorticoids act in electrolyte balance by controlling the body’s sodium and potassium content. (Ex: aldosterone) 4. Glucocorticoids control glucose levels by increasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and inhibiting peripheral glucose use. 5. Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism by acting on bone, kidney, and the intestinal tract. In the kidneys, PTH activates vitamin D, which then increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestines. In the kidney tubule, PTH allows calcium to be reabsorbed and put back into the blood. 6. The effects of aging on the endocrine system vary widely but the 3 endocrine tissues most commonly observed to have reduced function are: the gonads, the thyroid gland, and the endocrine pancreas. 7. The release of glucagon is triggered by decreased blood glucose levels and increased blood amino acid levels. 8. The effects of DM result from insulin deficiency or resistance to endogenous insulin. Normally, insulin allows glucose transport into the cells for use as energy or storage as glycogen. Insulin also stimulates protein synthesis and free fatty acid storage in adipose tissue. Insulin deficiency compromises the body tissues’ access to essential nutrients for fuel and storage. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease and is insulin dependant. Type 2 is non-insulin dependant and may result from impaired insulin secretion, peripheral insulin resistance, and increased basal hepatic glucose production. Other factors include: obesity, insulin antagonist (such as
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