Study Guide Exam 1

Study Guide Exam 1 - 1. What are the 6 levels of structural...

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1. What are the 6 levels of structural organization in order of simplest to most complex? ~Level 1-Chemical-atoms, which combine to form molecules ~Level 2-Cellular-cells have some common function but vary in structure (Each cell surrounded  by a membrane)<-maintaining boundaries ~Level 3-Tissue-groups of similar cells that have a common function: Epithelial, Connective,  Muscle, Nervous ~Level 4-Organ-Different tissues join together for a specific function, variety depending on how  tissues are joined ~Level 5-Organ System-Association of organs that have a common function, 11 organ systems:  Digestive, Respiratory, Cardiovascular etc. ~Level 6-Organismal-all body systems functioning in a coordinating fashion to form a human  being (skin)<- maintaining boundaries ORGANS WORK TOGETHER TO SUPPORT THE ORGANISM!! *A sense of change in the environment: Responsiveness, Irritability, Excitability 2. What is homeostasis? Describe briefly what 2 body systems control homeostasis ~Condition where the body’s internal environment is maintained within physiological limits  (boundaries necessary for cells to survive) *Controlled by Nervous (Nerves-electrical communication) and Endocrine System (Hormones- chemicals in the blood) 3. List and describe the 3 parts of a feedback system ~Receptor-monitors the environment and responds to changes *Afferent pathway ~Control center-evaluates input and generates output *Efferent pathway ~Effector-receives output and responds 4. What is meant by positive and negative feedback, and provide an example of each ~Negative Feedback-Reverses the initial condition
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example is a thermostat. When the temperature in a heated room reaches a certain  upper limit the room heating is switched off so that the temperature begins to fall. When  the temperature drops to a lower limit, the heating is switched on again. Provided the  limits are close to each other, a steady room temperature is maintained. The same  applies to a cooling system, such as an air conditioner, a refrigerator, or a freezer. ~Positive Feedback-Magnifies the input
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BIO 124 taught by Professor Tondi during the Fall '07 term at George Mason.

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Study Guide Exam 1 - 1. What are the 6 levels of structural...

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