Take Home Exam August 8 2019 2.0.docx

Take Home Exam August 8 2019 2.0.docx - A NUR 372 Take Home...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 14 pages.

A NUR 372 Take Home Exam August 9, 2019 Essay#1: Fluids and Electrolytes: A. The Sodium-Potassium Pump is a vital homeostatic mechanism in our patients. It is important for the regulation of fluid, sodium and potassium. 1. Draw and describe the Na ++ -K + Pump – Separate sheet attached The sodium-potassium pump uses active transport to move sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane. It Involves the hydrolysis of ATP for energy and an enzyme know as sodium/potassium-ATPase. 2. Describe the processes of: a. Facilitated Diffusion- involves the use of a protein carrier in the cell membrane, the protein carrier combines with a molecule, especially one too large to pass easily through the cell membrane and assists in moving the molecule across the membrane from an area of high to low concentration. b. Active Transport- the process in which molecules move against the concentration gradient. c. Osmosis and Osmotic pressure- Osmosis is the movement of water down a concentration gradient, from a region of low solute concentration to one of high solute concentration, across a semipermeable membrane. Osmotic pressure is when the higher concentration makes the solutions pull greater. d. Hydrostatic Pressure- the force of fluid in a compartment pushing against a cell membrane or vessel wall. In the blood vessels, hydrostatic pressure is the BP generated by the concentration of the heart. 1
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

e. Oncotic pressure- the osmotic pressure caused by plasma colloids in solution. 3. Identify the flow of Extracellular and Intracellular fluid in the following states: a. Homeostasis: During homeostasis, fluids and electrolytes are balanced and stay within the accepted normal limits. No Net movement occurs, in this state, ECF and ICF are isotonic to one another. b. Hypovolemia- Also known as extracellular fluid volume deficit and is usually accompanied by sodium imbalance. Hypovolemia can occur with abnormal fluid loss of body fluids, plasma fluid shifting to interstitial fluid, or inadequate fluid intake. Fluid moves from ECF to ICF. c. Hypervolemia- Hypervolemia is also known as extracellular fluid volume excess and is usually accomplished by sodium imbalance. This can occur with excess intake of fluids, fluid shift from interstitial fluid into plasma fluid, and abdominal retention of fluids. Fluid moves from ICF to ECF. 4. Define the role the following electrolytes play in the human body a. Potassium is the major intracellular cation, with 98% of the body’s potassium being intracellular. The sodium-potassium pump in cell membrane maintains this concentration difference by pumping potassium into cell and sodium out. Insulin helps by stimulation the sodium potassium pump. b. Sodium plays a major role in in maintaining the concentration and volume of extracellular fluid and influences water distribution between extracellular and intracellular fluids. Sodium also plays an important role in the generation and transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractility, and regulation of acid-base balance.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
  • Fall '19
  • acute pain

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern