Survey of US History Task 3 Parts A-E.docx - Survey of US...

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Survey of US History C121, Task 3 / Kerry Biordi / 0529991Part A 1.Socio-economic changes: Slavery, though now outlawed, started using the term “freedmen” to substitute for “slaves.” Though free, they still had many controls placed on them including curfews, limitations on ownership and entrepreneurship, separations of schools, and rules on where they could live. They also faced problems with their working conditions and ability to find work.a.Working conditions, now moving into more industrialized businesses, were often unsafe, unclean, and unregulated. Many former slaves migrated to the Northern stateswhere race relations, though still imperfect, were less strained than the South. (Norton, 2015)b.Sharecropping: Some freedmen and laborers working in the Southern states, formerly for plantation owners, worked under new conditions called sharecropping. Sharecropping allowed landowners to rent out some of their land to people who would work the land and share the crops with the landowner. This new arrangement was criticized as being just another form of slavery, because the plantation owners still needed laborers, and the newly freed slaves needed jobs. The sharecropping landowners would often keep ledgers of money owed by the poor renters for equipment and seed needed to harvest the land. The poor could never repay the wealthy landowners, thus keeping them in perpetual servitude. (Norton, 2015)2. Laws: The Civil Rights Bills of 1866was the first legislation introduced to define US Citizens as people who were native-born or naturalized during the Reconstruction period. This new definition included African-American “freedmen,” much to the bane of the racially prejudiced and Southern plantation owners.And although this was an encouragement to African Americans at the time, later rules would water down this bill’s liberty language and power. (Norton, 2015)3. Amendments: a. The 14thAmendmentto the constitution was instituted as a direct result of the extreme racial tensions, violence, and prejudices resulting from strained post-war relations and thereconstruction period. The 14thAmendment also prohibited states from confiscating a man’s life, liberty, or property without “due process” of law and from denying anyone “equal protection of the laws.” This amendment became a powerful encouragement and guarantee of civil rights for all men – except for native Indians, who ironically, though native born, were not admitted citizenship until 1924. (Norton, 2015)b. The 15thAmendment

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