Test 2 Review(1).docx - Test 2 – Review TOPIC 4 – THE...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 4 pages.

T e s t 2 R e v i e w TOPIC 4 – THE ENERGY OF LIFE J What is energy? Ability to do work. Keep in mind that ‘work’ refers to cellular work, not your job. J Types of energy? Chemical (in the bonds of ATP, in the food you eat, etc.), [solar (sun), radiant, light], potential (stored, inherent, relative to position), kinetic (movement), electrical (flow of electrons), electromagnetic (visible light, UV, Xrays, etc.) etc…. J 1 st Law of Thermodynamics - Energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely change forms J 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics – For every energy conversion there will be a loss of energy in the form of heat (thermal). For endothermic organisms this helps to regulate body temp. J Exergonic (energy out, hydrolysis, CR, oxidation) vs. endergonic (energy in, dehydration, photosynthesis, reduction)? Typically coupled reactions. EXO = out, outside; ENDO= in, inside J Metabolism – sum of all the chemical processes within a cell/organism J What are enzymes? Biological catalysts. End in –ase. Make reactions possible. o How do they work? Lower activation energy. Help move along processes that without them would not happen. o What are they made of? Proteins made from amino acid monomers. They have a very specific 3D shape specific to their function. No shape (denatured), no function. Denaturing can be reversed. Reusable. o Active site – Area of the enzyme that facilitates the reactions. Where the substrate binds to. o Substrate – Molecule/compound that the enzyme affects. Generally breaks something apart or binds things together. o Cofactors are minerals, coenzymes are vitamins. J What effects enzyme activity? pH (generally acidic), temp., electrolytes (salinity), malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, etc. Changes resulting from these conditions cause the enzyme to ‘unfold’, losing its function. In most cases, however, the enzyme can regain its shape and function. Denature, denaturing, denaturation….
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 2

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern