colon cancer.pdf - Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology(NCCN Guidelines\u00ae Colon Cancer Version 2.2017 \u2014 NCCN.org NCCN Guidelines for Patients\u00ae

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Unformatted text preview: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) Colon Cancer Version 2.2017 — March 13, 2017 NCCN.org NCCN Guidelines for Patients® available at Continue Version 2.2017, 03/13/17 © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2017, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®. Printed by Chun Fung Li on 7/18/2017 8:46:58 AM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright © 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017 Panel Members Colon Cancer * Al B. Benson, III, MD/Chair † Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University * Alan P. Venook, MD/Vice-Chair † ‡ UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Lynette Cederquist, MD Þ UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center Emily Chan, MD, PhD † Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Yi-Jen Chen, MD, PhD § City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center Harry S. Cooper, MD ≠ Fox Chase Cancer Center Dustin Deming, MD † University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center Paul F. Engstrom, MD † Fox Chase Cancer Center Peter C. Enzinger, MD † Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center Alessandro Fichera, MD Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance Jean L. Grem, MD † Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center Axel Grothey, MD † Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Steven Nurkin, MD, MS ¶ Roswell Park Cancer Institute Howard S. Hochster, MD † Yale Cancer Center/Smilow Cancer Hospital Leonard Saltz, MD † ‡ Þ Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Sarah Hoffe, MD § Moffitt Cancer Center Sunil Sharma, MD † Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah Steven Hunt, MD ¶ Siteman Cancer Center at BarnesJewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine David Shibata, MD ¶ The University of Tennessee Health Science Center Ahmed Kamel, MD ф University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center Natalie Kirilcuk, MD ¶ Stanford Cancer Institute Smitha Krishnamurthi, MD † Þ Case Comprehensive Cancer Center/ University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute * Wells A. Messersmith, MD † University of Colorado Cancer Center Mary F. Mulcahy, MD ‡ † Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University James D. Murphy, MD, MS § UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center John M. Skibber, MD ¶ The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Constantinos T. Sofocleous, MD, PhD ф Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Elena M. Stoffel, MD, MPH ¤ University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, BSN, RN ¥ The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Christopher G. Willett, MD § Duke Cancer Institute Christina S. Wu, MD The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute NCCN Deborah Freedman-Cass, PhD Kristina M. Gregory, RN, MSN, OCN Continue NCCN Guidelines Panel Disclosures NCCN Guidelines Index Table of Contents Discussion † Medical oncology § Radiotherapy/Radiation oncology ¶ Surgery/Surgical oncology ≠ Pathology ‡ Hematology/Hematology oncology Version 2.2017, 03/13/17 © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2017, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®. Þ Internal medicine ф Diagnostic/Interventional radiology ¤ Gastroenterology ¥ Patient advocate *Discussion Section Writing Committee Printed by Chun Fung Li on 7/18/2017 8:46:58 AM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright © 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017 Table of Contents Colon Cancer NCCN Colon Cancer Panel Members Summary of the Guidelines Updates Clinical Presentations and Primary Treatment: • Pedunculated Polyp (Adenoma) with Invasive Cancer (COL-1) • Sessile Polyp (Adenoma) with Invasive Cancer (COL-1) • Colon Cancer Appropriate for Resection (COL-2) • Suspected or Proven Metastatic Synchronous Adenocarcinoma (COL-4) Pathologic Stage, Adjuvant Treatment (COL-3) Surveillance (COL-8) Recurrence and Workup (COL-9) Metachronous Metastases (COL-9) Principles of Pathologic Review (COL-A) Principles of Surgery (COL-B) Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Disease (COL-C) Principles of Radiation Therapy (COL-D) Principles of Risk Assessment for Stage II Disease (COL-E) Principles of Adjuvant Therapy (COL-F) Principles of Survivorship (COL-G) NCCN Guidelines Index Table of Contents Discussion Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management for any patient with cancer is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged. To find clinical trials online at NCCN Member Institutions, click here: nccn.org/clinical_trials/physician.html. NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. See NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus. Staging (ST-1) The NCCN Guidelines® are a statement of evidence and consensus of the authors regarding their views of currently accepted approaches to treatment. Any clinician seeking to apply or consult the NCCN Guidelines is expected to use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to determine any patient’s care or treatment. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) makes no representations or warranties of any kind regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way. The NCCN Guidelines are copyrighted by National Comprehensive Cancer Network®. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines and the illustrations herein may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN. ©2017. Version 2.2017, 03/13/17 © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2017, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®. Printed by Chun Fung Li on 7/18/2017 8:46:58 AM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright © 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017 Updates Colon Cancer NCCN Guidelines Index Table of Contents Discussion Updates in Version 2.2017 of the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer from Version 1.2017 include: COL-1 • The following footnote moved into the algorithm: Small bowel and appendiceal adenocarcinoma may be treated with systemic chemotherapy according to the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer. Peritoneal mesothelioma and other extrapleural mesotheliomas may be treated with systemic therapy along NCCN Guidelines for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, as outlined on page MPM-A. (also applies to COL-2) COL-3 • The following footnotes removed: Universal mismatch repair (MMR) or microsatellite instability (MSI) testing is recommended in all patients with a personal history of colon or rectal cancer. Patients with stage II colon cancer and MSI-H/dMMR may have a good prognosis and do not benefit from 5-FU adjuvant therapy. Sargent DJ, Marsoni S, Monges G, et al. Defective mismatch repair as a predictive marker for lack of efficacy of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy in colon cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:3219-3226. See Principles of Pathologic Review (COL-A) - Microsatellite Instability (MSI) or Mismatch Repair (MMR) Testing for Lynch Syndrome. Bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, irinotecan, ziv-aflibercept, ramucirumab, regorafenib, trifluridine + tipiracil, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab should not be used in the adjuvant setting for patients with stage II or III colon cancer outside the setting of a clinical trial. COL-4 • The following footnote removed: Moulton CA, Gu CS, Law CH, et al. Effect of PET before liver resection on surgical management for colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014;311:1863-1869. COL-5 • The following footnote removed: The majority of safety and efficacy data for this regimen have been developed in Europe, where a capecitabine starting dose of 1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days, repeated every 21 days, is standard. Evidence suggests that North American patients may experience greater toxicity with capecitabine (as well as with other fluoropyrimidines) than European patients, and may require a lower dose of capecitabine. The relative efficacy of CAPEOX with lower starting doses of capecitabine has not been addressed in large-scale ranomized trials. (also applies to COL-6) COL-6 • First sentence removed from footnote “dd”: The safety of administering bevacizumab pre- or postoperatively, in combination with 5-FUbased regimens, has not been adequately evaluated. • Footnote “z” modified: Evidence increasingly suggests that BRAF V600E mutation makes response to panitumumab or cetuximab, as single agents or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, highly unlikely. (also applies to COL-11, COL-C 6 of 10) • New footnote “aa” added: The panel defines the left side of the colon as splenic flexure to rectum. Evidence suggests that patients with tumors originating on the right side of the colon (hepatic flexure through cecum) are unlikely to respond to cetuximab and panitumumab in first-line therapy for metastatic disease. Data on the response to cetuximab and panitumumab in patients with primary tumors originating in the transverse colon (hepatic flexure to splenic flexure) are lacking. COL-8 • The following footnotes removed: Meyerhardt JA, Mangu PB, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol 2013 Dec 10;31(35):4465-4470. CT scan may be useful for patients at high risk for recurrence (eg, lymphatic or venous invasion by tumor; poorly differentiated tumors). COL-10 • The following footnote removed: There are limited data to support a specific treatment regimen in this setting. (also applies to COL-11) Version 2.2017, 03/13/17 © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2017, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®. UPDATES Printed by Chun Fung Li on 7/18/2017 8:46:58 AM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright © 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017 Updates Colon Cancer NCCN Guidelines Index Table of Contents Discussion Updates in Version 2.2017 of the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer from Version 1.2017 include: COL-C 1 of 10 • Initial Therapy: 5-FU/leucovorin clarified with the addition of “infusional preferred”. COL-C 6 of 10 • The following footnotes removed: Discontinuation of oxaliplatin should be strongly considered from FOLFOX or CAPEOX after 3–4 months of therapy (or sooner if significant neurotoxicity develops ≥ grade 2) with other drugs maintained (fluoropyrimidine + bevacizumab) until time of tumor progression. Oxaliplatin may be reintroduced if it was discontinued previously for neurotoxicity rather than disease progression. Tournigand C, Cervantes A, Figer A, et al. OPTIMOX1: A randomized study of FOLFOX4 or FOLFOX7 with oxaliplatin in a stop-and-go fashion in advanced colorectal cancer - A GERCOR Study. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:394-400. There are no data to support the routine use of Ca/Mg infusion to prevent oxaliplatin-related neurotoxicity and therefore it should not be done. The majority of safety and efficacy data for this regimen have been developed in Europe, where a capecitabine starting dose of 1000 mg/ m2 twice daily for 14 days, repeated every 21 days, is standard. Evidence suggests that North American patients may experience greater toxicity with capecitabine (as well as with other fluoropyrimidines) than European patients, and may require a lower dose of capecitabine. The relative efficacy of CAPEOX with lower starting doses of capecitabine has not been addressed in large-scale randomized trials. There is an increased risk of stroke and other arterial events, especially in those aged ≥65 years. The use of bevacizumab may interfere with wound healing. Combination therapy involving cytotoxics, anti-EGFRs, and anti-VEGFs is not recommended. Hecht JR, Mitchell E, Chidiac T, et al. A randomized phase IIIB trial of chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and panitumumab compared with chemotherapy and bevacizumab alone for metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:672-80. Tol J, Koopman M, Cats A, et al. Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2009;360(6):563-572. Infusional 5-FU is preferred. Patients with diminished creatinine clearance may require dose modification of capecitabine. EGFR testing has no demonstrated predictive value; therefore, routine EGFR testing is not recommended. No patient should be included or excluded from cetuximab or panitumumab therapy on the basis of EGFR test results. There are no data, nor is there a compelling rationale, to support the use of panitumumab after clinical failure on cetuximab, or the use of cetuximab after clinical failure on panitumumab. As such, the use of one of these agents after therapeutic failure on the other is not recommended. Single-agent or combination therapy with capecitabine, mitomycin, or gemcitabine has not been shown to be effective in this setting. • Footnote “5” replaced: There is a preponderance of data to suggest lack of activity of cetuximab and panitumumab in initial therapy for patients whose primary tumors originated on the right side of the colon. The panel defines the left side of the colon as splenic flexure to rectum. Evidence suggests that patients with tumors originating on the right side of the colon (hepatic flexure through cecum) are unlikely to respond to cetuximab and panitumumab in first-line therapy for metastatic disease. Data on the response to cetuximab and panitumumab in patients with primary tumors originating in the transverse colon (hepatic flexure to splenic flexure) are lacking. • Footnote “6” modified: Irinotecan should be used with caution and with decreased doses in patients with Gilbert’s disease or elevated serum bilirubin. There is a commercially available test for UGT1A1. Guidelines for use in clinical practice have not been established. COL-C 7 of 10 • The following footnote removed: NCCN recommends limiting chemotherapy orders to 24-hour units (ie, 1200 mg/m2/d NOT 2400 mg/m2 over 48 hours) to minimize medication errors. (also applies to COL-C 8 of 10, COL-C 9 of 10, COL-F 2 of 2) Version 2.2017, 03/13/17 © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2017, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®. UPDATES Printed by Chun Fung Li on 7/18/2017 8:46:58 AM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright © 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017 Updates Colon Cancer NCCN Guidelines Index Table of Contents Discussion Updates in Version 1.2017 of the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer from Version 2.2016 include: General • Imaging recommendations clarified with anatomy and contrast. • Advanced or Metastatic Disease: “Chemotherapy” changed throughout to “Systemic therapy.” MS-1 • The discussion section was updated to reflect the changes in the algorithm. COL-2 • Workup, bullet 5: “routinely” removed. • Clinical T4b: Consider neoadjuvant chemotherapy specified as “FOLFOX or CAPEOX.” • Locally unresectable or medically inoperable: Chemotherapy/RT recommendation clarified as: “Infusional 5-FU/RT (preferred) or Capecitabine/RT (preferred) or Bolus 5-FU/leucovorin + RT.” • Footnote “k” added: “Bolus 5-FU/leucovorin/RT is an option for patients not able to tolerate capecitabine or infusional 5-FU.” COL-4 • Footnote “w” modified: “CT should be with IV contrast. Consider MRI with IV contrast if CT is inadequate. PET/CT may be considered for patients who cannot receive contrast.” • Footnote “y” modified: “Consider colon resection only if imminent risk of obstruction, significant bleeding, perforation, or other significant tumor-related symptoms. (also applies to COL-7) COL-5 • Treatment: FOLFOX or CAPEOX listed as preferred. FOLFIRI changed from a category 2A to a category 2B. The combination regimens with bevacizumab, cetuximab, or panitumumab were removed, along with their corresponding footnotes. • Adjuvant Treatment FLOX, capecitabine, 5-FU/leucovorin added as treatment options. The option of “Consider observation or shortened course of chemotherapy” was removed. The column heading “6 mo total perioperative treatment preferred” moved into the algorithm. (also applies to COL-6) • Footnote “aa” clarified: “Resection is preferred over locally ablative procedures (eg, image-guided ablation or SBRT). However, these local techniques can be considered for liver or lung oligometastases.” (also applies to COL-10) • Footnote “cc” added: “Imaging (Chest/Abdomen/Pelvic CT with contrast) to be performed prior to adjuvant treatment to assess response to primary therapy or resection.” (also applies to COL-6, COL-10, COL-11) • Surveillance moved to COL-8. COL-6 • Panitumumab and cetuximab combination therapy is only recommended for left-sided tumors. • Indications added for the consideration of colon resection: “perforation or other significant tumor-related symptoms.” • Adjuvant therapy clarified as “Systemic chemotherapy ± biologic therapy (COL-C) (category 2B for biologic therapy).” • Surveillance moved to COL-8. Version 2.2017, 03/13/17 © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2017, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®. UPDATES Printed by Chun Fung Li on 7/18/2017 8:46:58 AM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright © 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2017 Updates Colon Cancer NCCN Guidelines Index Table of Contents Discussion Updates in Version 1.2017 of the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer from Version 2.2016 include: COL-7 • Footnote “gg” modified: “Aggressive cytoreductive debulking and/or intraperitoneal chemotherapy are not recommended outside the setting of a clinical trial. If R0 resection can be achieved, surgical resection of isolated peritoneal disease may be considered at experienced centers. Complete cytoreductive surgery and/or intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be considered in experienced centers for select patients with limited peritoneal metastases for whom R0 resection can be achieved.” COL-8 • Surveillance moved to its own page for Stage I-IV. • Stage II-III, bullet 5: “routinely” removed. • Footnote “hh”: reference updated to “Meyerhardt JA, Mangu PB, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol 2013 Dec 10;31(35):4465-4470.” COL-10 • Primary Treatment No previous chemotherapy: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FLOX or Capecitabine or 5-FU/leucovorin changed from a category 2A to a category 2B. Previous chemotherapy: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy recommendations changed from “Chemotherapy as per COL-C” to “FOLFOX [preferred] or CAPEOX [preferred] or FLOX or Capecitabine or 5-FU/leucovorin.” • Adjuvant Treatment No growth on neoadjuvant chemotherapy: “Observation” added as an option. Growth on neoadjuvant chemotherapy: “Systemic chemotherapy ± biologic therapy (COL-C) (category 2B for biologic therapy).” Previous chemotherapy: “Adjuvant therapy after resection clarified as “Systemic chemotherapy ± biologic therapy (COL-C) (category 2B for biologic therapy).” • “See Surveillance” added with a link to COL-8. (also applies to COL-11) • Footnote “oo” added: “There are limited data to support a specific treatment regimen in this setting.”...
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