Chapter 12 -Topics from Ch.10 & 11•Avrami equation (for fraction oftransformation)•Coarse pearlite•Fine pearlite•Growth of a new phase•Heterogeneous nucleation•Homogeneous nucleation•Isothermaltransformationdiagram•Kinetics of phasetransformations•Nucleation barrier•Phase transformation•Rate of the phasetransformation•Size of the critical nucleus•Transformation rate•Bainite, Spheroidite, Martensite•Continuous CoolingTransformation Diagrams•Classification of Metals(Ferrous, 10XX, etc)•Precipitation Hardening1https://https://
Chapter 12 -2Chapter 12: Structures & Properties ofCeramicsISSUES TO ADDRESS...•How do the crystal structures of ceramic materialsdiffer from those for metals?•How do point defects in ceramics differ from thosedefects found in metals?•How are impurities accommodated in the ceramic lattice?•How are the mechanical properties of ceramicsmeasured, and how do they differ from those for metals?•In what ways are ceramic phase diagrams different fromphase diagrams for metals?
Chapter 12 -3•Bonding:--Can be ionic and/or covalent in character.--% ionic character increases with difference inelectronegativity of atoms.Adapted from Fig. 2.7,Callister & Rethwisch 8e.(Fig. 2.7 is adapted from Linus Pauling,The Nature of theChemical Bond, 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and 1940, 3rd edition.Copyright 1960 byCornell University.)•Degree of ionic character may be large or small:Atomic Bonding in CeramicsSiC: smallCaF2: large
Chapter 12 -4Ceramic Crystal StructuresOxide structures–oxygen anions larger than metal cations–close packed oxygen in a lattice (usually FCC)–cations fit into interstitial sites among oxygen ions
Chapter 12 -5Factors that Determine Crystal Structure1.Relative sizes of ions–Formation of stable structures:--maximize the # of oppositely charged ion neighbors.Adapted from Fig. 12.1,Callister & Rethwisch 8e.----+unstable----+stable----+unstable2.Maintenance ofCharge Neutrality:--Net charge in ceramicshould be zero.--Reflected in chemicalformula:CaF2:Ca2+cationF-F-anions+AmXpm, p values to achieve charge neutrality
Chapter 12 -6•Coordination # increases withCoordination # and Ionic RadiiAdapted from Table 12.2,Callister & Rethwisch 8e.2rcationranionCoord#< 0.1550.155 - 0.2250.225 - 0.4140.414 - 0.7320.732 - 1.03468lineartriangulartetrahedraloctahedralcubicAdapted from Fig. 12.2,Callister & Rethwisch 8e.Adapted from Fig. 12.3,Callister & Rethwisch 8e.Adapted from Fig. 12.4,Callister & Rethwisch 8e.ZnS(zinc blende)NaCl(sodiumchloride)CsCl(cesiumchloride)rcationranionTo form a stable structure, how many anions cansurround around a cation?
Chapter 12 -7Computation of Minimum Cation-AnionRadius Ratio•Determine minimumrcation/ranionfor an octahedral site(C.N. = 6)a=2ranion2ranion2rcation=2 2ranionranionrcation=2ranionrcation=( 21)ranionarr222cationanion=414.012anioncation==rr