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Hi210 Study Guide 1

Hi210 Study Guide 1 - Louis XVI o 1774-1792 reign...

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Louis XVI o 1774-1792 reign o “Well-meaning but ineffectual king of France, finally deposed and executed with his family by revolutionaries” o Tried by the National convention and found guilty of treason Executed on Jan 21, 1793 Signaled the end of absolute monarchy in France Brought about rise of Napoleon Bonaparte o Beloved at first Indecisiveness and conservatism disliked o Fall of monarchy is the start of 2 nd revolution New assembly declared France a republic September 21, 1792 Third Estate o “delegates from the common class to the estates general, the French Legislature, whose refusal to capitulate to the nobility and clergy in 1789 led to the revolution” o Formed of everyone one other than clergy, priests (1 st nd ) o Did all of the work and paid all of the taxes imposed by other estates o Deeply resented privileges of other estates (feudal privileges) o French society was divided into 3 estates An individual’s estate marked his standing, status, legal rights… Estates general: the representative body of the three estates of the realm 3 rd estate demanded twice the vote in the Estates General King first denied then gave in o Unwillingness to take a strong stand cost him support of 3 rd estate. o Declared itself National Assembly June 17, 1789 An assembly not of the Estates but of "the People". “Governing body of France that succeeded the Estates General I n1789 during the French Revolution. It was composed of, and defined by the delegates of the 3 rd estate” Capitalists Tennis Court Oath: June 20, 1789 Locked out of meeting area, feared the King The deputies pledged to continue to meet until a constitution had been written, despite the royal prohibition. The oath was both a revolutionary act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch himself. Their solidarity forced Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly. o September 1789 – Written by National Assembly o “French charter of liberties formulated by the national assembly that marked the end of dynastic and aristocratic rule. The seventeen articles later became the preamble to the new constitution, which the assembly finished in 1971” o Significance Only nation is sovereign Comes from people only source of political legitimacy o Rights Explained universal inalienable rights Natural right of liberty, property, security, resistance to pressure Freedom of speech, religious toleration, and liberty of the press o Perical of liberal thinking during revolution
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o Shift from estate/absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy Olympe de Gouges o Female playwright and intellectual, Radical o A passionate advocate of human rights o Opposed: The declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
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Hi210 Study Guide 1 - Louis XVI o 1774-1792 reign...

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