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Unformatted text preview: AP-A20~ 606' Q! '7\ , 8 r Best Avaiabl ....... Cop Reproduced From Best Available Copy \ ji<27 50 .C ½ NAVWEPS 00-65 -502 Handbook Reliability Engineering PUBLISHED BY THE DIRECTION OF THE CHIEF- OF THE BUREAU OF NAVAL WEAPONS 1 June 1964 9410 28 004 NAVWEPS 00-65-502 Reproduction for nonmilitary use of the information or illustrations contained in this publication is not permitted without specific approval of the issuing service (BuWeps or USAF). The policy for use of Classified Publications is established for the Air Force in AFR 205-1 and for the Navy in Navy Regulations, Article 1509. LIST OF CHANGED PAGES ISSUED INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES. NOTE: The portion of the text affected by the current change is indicated by a vertical line in the outer margins of the page. * The asterisk indicates pages changed, added, or deleted by the current change. Bu•Weps ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE OBTAINED AS FOLLOWS: USAF ACTIVrEITS.-In accordance with Technical Order No. 00-5-2. NAVY ACTIVITI.-For listing of available material and details of distribution see NavSandA P-2002, Section 0 and NavWepa Oo-500A. Ptal,-,.-u iintcucnc at Documents, U.S. Govemment rrnnung umccW ashington, D.t.r-'-•l '- -7- NAVWEPS 00-65-502 FOREWORD The Reliability Engineering Handbook has been prepared to fill an increasing need for a manual of reliability methods suitable for application by project management and engineering personnel within the Bureau of Naval Weapons-to assist in the full exploitation of available reliability assurance measures in the planning, direction, and monitoring of their respective development programs. This handbook differs from others in that it demonstrates step-by-step procedures for the application of methods to fulfill specific program requirements, and it references other documentation for more detailed treatment of the principles which underlie the methods. The handbook attempts to satisfy the need for a "digest" of these principles, however, through practical examples drawn from the several phases of the system life cycle. This first edition presents specific procedures for effective planning, achievement, management, and control of reliability, with emphasis on the conceptual and early design phases of system development. "I For . ":Iy .:!y Codes ; .t S Ava/i and/or i Special M Foreword NAVWEPS 00-65-502 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................. 1-1 1-1 Reliability as an Engineering Practice ...................... 1-1 1-1-1 The Importance of Reliability to System Effectiveness ........ .1-1 1-1-2 Purpose and Scope of the Handbook ......................... 1-1 1-1-3 Reliability Is A "Growth" Process ......................... 1-2 1-1-4 Organization and Use of the Handbook ...................... 1-2 1-2 Reliability Documents Applicable to the System Life Cycle .... 1-5 1-2-1 The System Life Cycle .................................... 1-5 1-2-2 Specifications ........................................... 1-6 1-2-3 Weapon Requirements Documents ........................... 1-9 1-24 Instructions ............................................. 1-2-5 Military Standards ........................................ 1-2-6 1-2-7 1-3 Handbooks .............................................. Procedures Related to Specific Documents ................... Relationship of Reliability and Maintainability to System Effectiveness ............................... System "Operational" Effectiveness ....................... The Concept of "Operational" Reliability ................... Reliability Definitions .................................... Describing the Reliability Requirement ...................... Concept of "Tactical" Availability ......................... 1-14 1-14 1-15 1-17 1-18 1-19 Availability as a Function of Equipment Maintainability and Mean Life......................... Describing the Availability Requirement ..................... A Review of the Reliability Situation ....................... Present Avionics Equipment ............................... Present Shipboard Equipment ............................ Future Prospects.................................... Project Engineering "MUSTS" ............................. 1-20 1-22 1-23 1-23 1-26 1-26 1-27 1-3-1 1-3-2 1-3-3 1-34 1-3-5 1-3-6 1-3-7 1-4 1-4-1 14-2 14-3 1-4-4 1-10 1-10 1-11 1-12 iL NAVWEPS 00-65-502 Page Chapter 2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS, FEASIBILITY ESTIMATION, AND ALLOCATION 2-1 Introduction ............................................. 2-1-1 General ............................................ 2-2 Definition of System Operational Requirements ............... 2-2-1 2-2-2 2-3 2-3-1 2-3-2 2-3-3 2-4 General ................................................. Procedural Steps ......................................... Reliability Feasibility Estimation and Allocation ............. General ................................................. Active Element Group Concept of Complexity ................. Procedural Steps ......................................... Estimation of Maintainability and Availability in the Design Phase .................................. General ................................................. Procedural Steps ......................................... 2-4-1 2-4-2 3. : ii RELIABILITY PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS, PLANNING, AND MANAGEMENT GUIDE Introduction ............................................. 3-1 General ................................................. 3-1-1 Applicable Documents ..................................... 3-1-2 Recommended Contractor Program .......................... 3-2 General ................................................ 3-2-1 Design Reviews .......................................... 3-2-2 Production Control and Monitoring ........................ 3-2-3 Subcontractor and Vendor Reliability Control ................. 3-2-4 Reliability Development Test Progr-m .................. 3-2-5 Reliability Analyses ...................................... 3-2-6 Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Feedback .................. 3-2-7 Reliability Monitoring ..................................... 3-2-8 3-3 Specification of the Program ............................... 3-4 3-5 3-5-1 3-5-2 3-5-3 3-5-4 Program Management and Monitoring ........................ Reliability and Maintainability Training ..................... General ................................................. Guidelines ............................................... Course Outline ........................................... Planning Considerations. .................................. 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-3 2-19 2-19 2-19 2-21 2-36 2-36 2-36 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-19 3-20 NAVWEPS 00-65-502 Chapter 4. Page DOCUMENTATION OF RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY REQUIREMENTS 4-1 Introduction .............................................. 4-1-1 Purpose and Scope ....................................... 4-1-2 Documentation Checklist .................................. 4-2 Documentation of Reliability and Maintainability Requirements in Technical Development Plans (TDP's) ............... 4-2-1 Role of the TDP ......................................... 4-2-2 TDP Format ........................................... 4-2-3 Procedural Steps for the Documentation of Reliability and Maintainability in TDP's ............................... 4-3 Documentation of Reliability and Maintainability Requirements in Procurement Documents and Specifications ............ 4-3-1 General ................................................. 4-3-2 Procedural Steps ......................................... 5. 4-3 4-:3 4-3 4-4 4-9 4-9 4-11 RELIABILITY DESIGN AND DESIGN ASSESSMENT 5-1 5-1-1 5-1-2 Introduction .............................................. Principles of "Estimation" ... ............................. 5-1 5-1 Basis for Standardization .................................. 5-1 5-1-3 5-2 Applicability of Estimating Procedures ...................... Step-by-Step Procedure .................................... 5-2-1 5-2-2 5-3 Basic Considerations ..................................... Specific Procedural Steps ................................. Considerations in the Use of Redundancy and Micro-Electronics 5-1 5-2 5-3-1 5-3-2 "Micro" Characteristics .................................. Specific Procedural Steps .................................. for Reliability Improvement ............................ 6. 4-1 4-1 4-1 DEVELOPMENT TESTING AND TEST DESIGN 6-1 Introduction ............................................. 6-1-1 An Empirical Design Technique ............................ 6-1-2 Reliability Test Objectives in Development .................. 6-1-3 Test Procedures .......................................... 6-1-4 Test Design Consideration ................................ 6-2 Tests of Inquiry .......................................... 6-2-1 Basic Types ............................................. 6-2-2 Measurement of Reliability (Application of Confidence Limits).. 6-2-3 Procedural Steps ......................................... 6-2-4 Evaluation Tests (Regression Analysis) ..................... 6-2-5 Procedural Steps ......................................... 6-3 Tests of Hypothesis (Decision Making) ...................... 6-3-1 Categories of Decision .................................... 6-3-2 Tests of Verification ...................................... 6-3-3 Tests of Comparison ...................................... 5-2 5-2 5-19 5-19 5-19 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-4 6- 4 6-8 6-8 6-13 6-13 6-14 6-21 iii NAVWEPS 00-65.502 Chapter 7. 8. 9. iv Page RELIABILITY ACCEPTANCE TESTS 7-1 Introduction ......................................... 7-2 Sequential Test Design for MTBF Acceptance ................ 7-2-1 General ................................................. 7-2-2 Procedural Steps ......................................... 7-3 Sequential Test Design for Reliability Acceptance ............ 7-3-1 General ................................................. 7-3-2 Procedural Steps ......................................... 7-4 Truncation of Acceptance Test Plans ....................... 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-19 7-4-1 7-4-2 General ................................................. Procedural Steps ......................................... 7-19 7-19 7-5 Comparison of MTBF (Exponential) and Proportion Unreliable (Non-Exponential) Sequential Acceptance Test Plans ..... 7-21 RELIABILITY EVALUATION, FAILURE ANALYSIS, AND CORRECTION-THE "FEEDBACK" LOOP 8-1 Introduction .............................................. 8-1-1 General ................................................. 8-1-2 Data Form ............................................. 8-1-3 The Feedback Loop ...................................... 8-2 Analysis of Failure Data .................................. 8-3 Reliability Evaluation .................................... 8-4 Maintainability Evaluation ................................ 8-5 Corrective Action ........................................ 8-5-1 Failure Patterns ......................................... 8-5-2 Scheduled Replacement ................................... 8-5-3 Laboratory Analysis ...................................... 8-6 Reliability Data Sources .................................. DEVELOPMENT TIME AND COST ESTIMATION 9-1 Introduction ............................................. 9-1-1 Purpose ................................................ 9-1-2 Basis .................................................. 9-2 Fundamental Cost-Time Relationships ...................... 9-2-1 General ............................................ 9-2-2 Cost Determining Factors............................... 9-2-3 Time Determining Factors ................................. 9-3 Estimation Procedure ..................................... 9-3-1 Conventionality Assessment ............................... 9-3-2 Budget Requirements Estimation..........................9-7 9-3-3 Schedule Requirements Estimation ......................... 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-9 8-12 8-15 8-15 8-15 8-16 8-21 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-4 9-6 9-6 9-8 NAVWEPS 00-65-502 Page Chapter 10. NEW CONSIDERATIONS Introduction ............................................. 10-1 Design Considerations .................................... 10-2 General ................................................. 10-2-1 Conventional Design ..................................... 10-2-2 Micro-Electronics ........................................ 10-2-3 Redundincy .......................................... 10-2-4 Digital/Analog Hybrids .................................... 10-2-5 Redundancy-With-Repair .................................. 10-2-6 Program Planning Considerations .......................... 10-3 ................... General ........................... 10-3-1 .............. Safety" of Reliability a "Margin Application of 10-3-2 Reliability Monitoring by PERT ............................ 10-3-3 Reliability as a Contract Incentive ......................... 10-3-4 10-1 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-3 .. 10-5 10-7 10-7 10-8 10-8 10-8 10-10 10-10 Appendix 1. 2. 3. 4. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THE HANDBOOK RELIABILITY FORMULAE RELIABILITY ESTIMATION REDUNDANCY CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN Bibliography Index V NAVWEPS 00-65-502 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1. 1-2. 1-3. 1-4. 1-5. 1-6. 1-7. 1-8. 1-9. 1-10. 1-11. 1-12. 1-13. 2-1. 2-2. 2-3. 2-4. 2-5. 2-6. 2-7. 2-8. 2-9. 2-10. 2-11. 2-12. 2-13. 2-14. 2-15. 2-16. Page Ready Reference Index for the Performance of Specific Reliability Functions ................................................ Points of Reliability Practice in the System Life Cycle ................. Documents Applicable to the System Life Cycle ....................... Ready Reference Index for Compliance with Specified Documents ........ Definition of Operational Effectiveness ............................... The Concept of Operational Reliability as a Combination of Two Factors.. Exponential Reliability Function .................................... Probability and Time Relationships in the Definition of Reliability ...... Concept of Tactical Availability as a Design Value and Use Factor ...... Availability as a Function of Mean-Time-To-Restora/Mean-TimeBetween-Failures ................................................ Two Ways to Define Maintainability .................................. Observed Avionics Equipment Reliability (Analog Function) ............ Observed Shipboard Electronic System Reliability (Analog Function) ..... System Effectiveness Model for Specified Functions Under Stated Conditions ...................................................... Functional Block Diagram of a Weapon System ......................... Functional Block Diagram for a Typical Weapon Control System .......... Functional Block Diagram of Radar Transmitter ....................... Characteristics and Typical Operating Conditions for a Critical Component Example of System Use Condition Definitions ......................... Example of Mission Profile and Related Operating Times ............... Example of Effectiveness Allocation Among Major Subsystems ........... Distribution of Performance Parameter ............................... Example of Multiple-Level System Performance Definition .............. Reliability Block Diagram of a Weapon System ......................... Definition of Reliability Requirements for a Typical Weapon System ...... Reliability Block Diagram of Block 4 (Figure 2-11) .................... Transmitter Reliability Diagram Showing Partial Redundancy as Part of the Design Concept ............................................ Reliability Requirements Related to Performance Levels for the Partially Redundant Case ........................................ Reliability Requirements for Microwave Transmitter Package ............ 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-13 1-14 1-16 1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-22 1-24 1-25 2-2 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-11 2-12 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-15 2-16 2-16 vii NAAVWEPS 00-65.502 Figure 2-17. 2-18. 2-19. 2-20. 2-21. 2-22. 2-23. 2-24. 2-25. 2-26. 2-27. 2-28. 2-29. 3-1. 3-2. 3-3. 3-4. 4-1. 4-2. 4-3. 4-4. 4-5. 4-6. 4-7. 4-8. 4-9. 4-10. 4-11. 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5-5. viii Page Conditional Effectiveness Hyperbola, E, for Specified Levels of Reliability and Availability, Conditional on Performance Capability = 1.0 Relationship Between Availability and MTR/MTBF ..................... Plot of MTBF vs. Complexity Based on Past System Experience (MIL-STD-756A) ................................................. Progressive Expansion of Reliability Block Diagram as Design Detail Becomes Known ................................................. Translation of Estimated Complexity Range to Probable Range of Reliability Feasibility ........................................... AEG Failure Rates for Reliability Estimation When the Number of Active Elements is Known ........................................ Reliability Block Diagram With Redundant Elements ................... Equivalent Non-Redundant Unit ...................................... Maintainability and Availability Estimating Chart for Conventional Design .... .. .................................................. Block Diagram Reflecting Design Features for Maintainability ........... Equipment Availability as a Function of Operating Duty Cycle ........... System Effectiveness Plotted as a "Time-Dependent" Characteristic..... Comparison of Effectiveness Potential of New Design With Respect to Conventional Design ............................................. Reliability Assurance Program Requirements (Presently Reflected in WS-3250) ....................................................... Specification Checklist ............................................. Proposal Evaluation Guide .......................................... Progress Evaluation Guidelines ..................................... Checklist for Evaluation of Documentary Source Data ................... The Technical Development Plan Format ........................... Suggested Format for an Integrated Reliability and Maintainability Assurance Plan for Section 10 of TDP .............................. Checklist of Major Reliability and Maintainability Milestones ........... Temperature Profile ................................................ Typical Operational Sequence for Airborne Fire Control System .......... Four Definitions of Reliability ...................................... Methods of Specifying Reliability According to Levels of Complexity and Conditions of Use ............................................ Satisfactory Performance Limits ..................................... Relationship of "Nominal" Reliability Requirement to "Minimum" Acceptable Shown on Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves for Reliability Acceptance Tests ..................................... Two Definitions of Maintainability ................................... Simplified Block Diagram of Integrated CNI System ..................... Reliability Block Diagram for the Navigation Function (CNI) ............ Reliability Diagram of ADF Receiver ................................ Parts Count Within the RF Module ................................... Parts Count for the Receiver ........................................ 2-17 2-18 2-20 2-22 2-25 2-27 2-32 2-32 2-38 2-39 2-41 2-43 2-43 3-7 3-8 3-11 3-15 4-2 4-4 4-6 4-7 4-13 4-14 4-16 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 4 NAVWEPS 00-65-502 Figure 5-6. 5-7. 5-8. 5-9. 5-10. 5-11. 5-12. 5-13. 5-14. 5-15. 5-16. 5-17. 6-1. 6-2. 6-3. 6-4. 6-5. 6-6. 6-7. 6-8. 6-9. 6-10. 6-11. 6-12. 6-13. 6-14. 6-15. 6-16. 6-17. 6-18. 7-1. 7-2. 7-3. 7-4. 7-5. 7-6. Page Proposed Circuit Diagram of 1st RF Stage ............................ Dissipation Derating Curve as a Function of Part Ambient Temperature, for Transistor Q 1 ................................................ Transistor Failure Rates ........................................... Modifications Necessary for Electron Tube...
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