UNIT 11 - Testing and Individual Differences(Intelligence Socially constructed intelligence \u25cf People are identified as intelligent by what their

UNIT 11 - Testing and Individual Differences(Intelligence...

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Testing and Individual Differences (Intelligence) Socially constructed intelligence People are identified as intelligent by what their cultures deem will produce success For Americans, that tends to be book smarts Intelligence Intelligence is a controversial topic that 52 intelligence researchers have agreed means: The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and knowledge to adapt to new situations Major intelligence theorists Charles Spearman: general intelligence Howard Gardner: multiple intelligences Robert Sternberg: multiple intelligences Charles Spearman Believed in general intelligence which underlies all mental abilities The “g factor”... measured by every task on an intelligence test Based on factor analysis: statistical procedure identifying clusters of related factors revealing different dimensions underlying a total test score More on g… Some people seem to have more intelligence and therefore are better at what they do. Id the idea of g is correct then: All tests of an ability should correlate positively with each other Some people can be good at everything, while others struggle with everything In school, many students perform close to their average regardless of the subject Multiple intelligences Around the 1980s psychologists began proposing broadening the definition of intelligence to include different abilities Each intelligence may be independent of one another Recall savants may have an exceptional specific skill, but otherwise limited mental ability Howard Gardner Leading multiple intelligence psychologist Proposes 8 types of intelligences (speculates about a 9th) Linguistic: word smart Musical: music smart Logical mathematical: number smart Spatial: picture smart Bodily-Kinesthetic: body smart Intrapersonal: self smart
Interpersonal: people smart Naturalist: nature smart *Existential: philosophically smart Robert Sternberg Agrees with Gardner that g is too narrow a measure of intelligence, proposing the Triarchic theory 3 distinct intelligences Practical intelligence: required for everyday tasks that may have multiple solutions Analytic intelligence: academic, problem solving

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