Oceanography Review Prelim 1

Oceanography Review Prelim 1 - Oceanography Review Prelim 1...

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Oceanography Review Prelim 1 2.3-2.6 The distance between Earth and the Sun, Earth’s orbit, its period of rotation, and its atmosphere protect earth from extreme temperature change and water loss. Because earth rotates, its shape is not perfectly symmetrical. Its exterior is relatively smooth. Natural time periods (the year, day, and month) are based on the motions of the sun, earth, and moon. Because of the tilt of earth’s axis as it orbits the sun, the sun appears to move annually between 23 ½ degrees North and 23 ½ degrees South, producing the seasons. Latitude and longitude are used to form a grid system for the location of positions on earth’s surface. Different types of map and chart projections have been developed to show earth’s features on a flat surface. These projections DISTORT earth’s features to some extent. Bathymetric and physiographic charts and maps use elevation and depth contours to depict earth’s topography. Lines of LATITUDE, also known as parallels, are referenced to the equator. Lines of latitude northwards 90 degrees (positive latitude) or southwards 90 degrees (negative latitude). Lines of LONGITUDE, or meridians, are formed at right angles to the latitude lines. Longitude is referenced to an arbitrarily chosen point: the 0 degreed longitude line on earth’s surface extends from the north pole to the south pole and passes directly through the royal naval observatory in Greenwich, England. Longitude may be reported as either 0 – 180 degrees east (positive longitude) or 0 – 180 degrees west (negative longitude). 0 degrees longitude line is the PRIME MERIDIAN 180-degree longitude line approximates the INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE Water is a vitally important compound on earth. Water’s RESIDENCE TIME (the average length of time that a water molecule spends in any one reservoir) varies in each reservoir and depends on the volume of the reservoir and the replenishment rate. The Northern hemisphere is the land hemisphere, the Southern hemisphere is the water hemisphere. 3.1-3.7 “FIT OF CONTINENTS”: Observant individuals were intrigued by the shapes of the continents on either side of the atlantic ocean. The possible “fit” of the bulge of south America into the bight of Africa was noticed by Francis Bacon (Englishman) and Antonio Snider-Pellegrini. Continental crust is formed from granitic rocks, which are less dense than oceanic crust (formed of basalt). The top of the earth’s mantle is fused to the crust to form the rigid lithosphere. The lithosphere floats on the deformable upper mantle, or asthenosphere. The pressures beneath the elevated continents and depressed ocean basins
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course EAS 1540 taught by Professor Monger during the Fall '07 term at Cornell.

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Oceanography Review Prelim 1 - Oceanography Review Prelim 1...

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