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DateBOWEL& URINE ELIMINATION1.SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE BASEA.Mouthmechanically and chemically braks down nutrients into usable size and form. B.EsophagusAs food enters, it passes through the upper esophageal sphincter.The bolus of food travels down the esophagus with the aid of peristalsis( contraction propel food down length of GI tract).The food moves down the esophagus and reaches the cardiac sphincter, which lies between the esophagus and the upper end of the stomach.The sphincter prevents reflux of stomach contents back into the esophagus.C.Stomachthe storage of the swallowed food and liquid; the mixing of food with digestive juices forms a substance called chyme; emptying of its contents into the small intestine.D.Small intestinefacilitates both digestion and absorptionChyme comes into the small intestine as a liquid material and mixes with digestive enzymes Reabsorption turns liquid from thin to thicker consistency - fecal matter The small intestine is divided into three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.E.Large intestinececum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon,sigmoid colon, and rectum. primary organ of bowel elimination. colon 3functions: absorption, secretion, and elimination. BM Peristaltic contractionsmove contents through the colon. Mass peristalsis pushes undigested food toward the rectum. These mass movements occur only three or four times daily, with the strongest during the hour after mealtime.F.Anus The body expels feces and flatus from the rectum through the anusG.Defecationfecal matter passes through the rectum then anusH.GI TRACTS The GI tract is a series of hollow mucous membrane-lined muscular organs. The GI tract absorbs high volumes of fluids, making fluid and electrolyte balance a key function of the GI system2.FACTORS AFFECTING BOWEL ELIMINATIONS
AgeInfants have a smaller stomach capacity, less secretion of digestive enzymes, and more rapid intestinal peristalsis.Adolescents experience rapid growth and increased metabolic rate.Older adults may have decreased chewing ability.Peristalsis declines and esophageal emptying slows.This impairs absorption by the intestinal mucosa.Muscle tone in the perineal floor and anal sphincter weakens, and may cause difficulty in controlling defecation.A.Fluid intake 3 L per day for men and 2.2 L per day for women Fluid liquefies intestinal contents creating a larger, softer stool mass. increases peristalsis and promotes movement of stool through the colon.Psychological factorsProlonged emotional stress impairs the function of almost all body systems. During emotional stress, the digestive process is accelerated and peristalsis is increased.B.Position during defecationsquatting , if pt immobile raise head of bed to help him or her to a more to normal position on bedpan, enhancing the ability to defecateC.Pregnancy Slowing of peristalsis during the third trimester often leads to constipation. formation of hemorrhoidsD.