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Unformatted text preview: LONGMA.N GROL'r LIMITED Lon gman HOUK, Burnt Mill, Harlo,", Euu CM20 2] E, England alld A UoXla l,J e;., ,,,paltlt . rll ","l~o'" rht World I COH E NT S I pllgt P R E F AC E Cl C,E, E cker $le ~ and J.M , [eke r';!e)' 1960 vu I S T RO D UCT I OS All rq:Il U rt ~ r\'td . f'; o ~Il of , II i" publi~a lio n m ~) be reprod uced , slored in II relrieval w sre m. or. r lll n~. mIll ed" In lln~ form 01 b y ll n~ mean... e"'dl"n~. me,~nical. p1'1010<:0pyin" recordm,. o,r Ol ll er ,:,' ... \llIou l llle puor permlwon of rile Co p)n,lI r o n - Chapftr(j) r (T HE P ART S OF SP EECH I 3 8 Classification by Fu nction Chapter€) /T HE S plPL E S FSn : S n Subjects and Objects; Enlargements; The Complemen t ; Word Order in Simple Sentences; Dec la rative Sentences; Questions; Commands, Req uests and I nvitat ions FirSI p wblisMd 1960 N t .. ImprtU kHlS · / 971: " 197J ( I..i« ): · ' 976 ; . /977 : • /978 ; · / 919 ; " / 980 . " IllS / .. " / 98J Cl!apltr QJJ (1) {Nous s K I S DS\ 19 Cou nt able and Uncou ntable S ouns; Compou nd S ouns; The Gramma t ical Function of Nouns ISiI!'o 0 S82 S2C042 II • • • Cluzptn @ I N o u x s (2 ) ~ \': )I BE R I Chapttr 6J !S O UN S (J) GB D EK I .' t 45 r 51 26 Formation of the Pl ural; I rregu lar Pl ura ls: Foreign Plurals; Co ncord: Plurals and Compound :Sou ns; F orm'" of Ad ,lre.u; :Souns wi lh no Pl ura l Form; Noo ns with no Singula r I"urm ; Pl urals with Difterent Meanings " Masc uline a nd Feminine Forms Clulpter(0 , X O UN S Ul CA SE Tile Posh 'live (Genit ive) c.se; Su bjec t ive a nd Objective Genit Ive; mTi"phc at ute of th e Genit!~e; The Double P ossessive - [T HE AR TICL ES The I nd efi nit e Article; The Definite Article; Id iom atic Ch.2pter {j) Printed iJ1 HOffI KOI1I by Cornmotr _ aJ rll !rll1ril1l Pmr Ltd U$C of the ,. COI'T£NTS I Chapler(§) [ A DJ ECTI VESl 64 The A tt ri butive and P redica tive use; Adject ives func t ioning as Nouns; Ko uns fu nctioning as Adjectives; The Formation of Adjectives from Noun s; Participles used Adjec tivally; The Format ion of t he Negative Chapter(iJ OF AD JECT IV E S] (C O }\ P A R I S O S 70 Notes on Comparison; Id iom at ic Construc tions; The position of Ad jel;tivcs; Possessive Ad ject ives: O ther t ypes of Adjec ti ve s Chapler €§) \ D E T E R Ml s AT l v E sl • CONTESTS puge I I [email protected] V E RBS {51 ~I O OD po.ge ( 22 5 T he I mpc ra th 'e; The Subjunc tive I Chapter rfj) I VER aS (6) Til E N O ~. F I S IT E S ' 230 The Infinitive; The Particle to wi thou t th e I nfi niti ve; Functions o f t he I nfi nitive; The Split I nfinitive: T he Participles; Position of l'drtkiples; Pa rt ici ples wit h the I n finit ive: Particlpks as A<ljedivc Clause Equivalents: Partic iples as Adverb Clause Equi valen ts' Mis-related P articiples; Compound Pa rt iciples; The Genlnd: Verbs follow ed by th e Gerund; Verbs followed by the Infinitive: Verbs followed by Ge ru nd or I n finitive T ables of usage; Notes on som e Determinativcs Chapter @ [email protected] \P ROS OUS S\ 97 Person in Pronouns; Case; Notes on Personal Pronouns; Possessive Pronoun s; T he Double P ossessive; Demonstrative P ronouns; Reflexive and E mph asizing P ronouns; I nterrogat ive P ronouns; Interroga t ives; I d iom atic E xpressions; Indefinite Pronouns; N otes on some I ndefi nite Pronouns; Relative P ronoun s [email protected]; \ VERBS I 1 43 I V E R BS (2) T E !' S E~ 157 The Simple Tenses; The Continuous T e nses; The Perfect T enses Chapter (fj}- l VERBS (3) THE SPECIAL F Il\IT ES (i U1 32 F ormation o.f..Jh~ Negative; Fcrmattonjof the I nt errogative: _ Qu~stion Phrases; ) Short Answers; Elliptic al -Sentences; - The Emphatic Form: Position of Ad verbs; Third Person Sin gu lar. G m}]be, have; causative use of have; have to; can; could; do; should. would; may . might; must; need, ought; dare; uud (to) li K S PKC I AL F It'lTE S J 2 51 • D VE R BI AI• •-\ RTl C I. F. S' 2i7 P re po sitio ns and Adverbs; Posi tion of t he Preposition; Illustrations o f the usage of Prepositions and Adverbial Particles Chapter w I C O N N E C Tl V £ S \ 306 Conju nctions; The and Group; The but Group; The 0' Group: T he so Group; Subordinate Conjunctions haPler~JI~N~'~E~'~R:il~E~C:i':i1:20~N~S::;A~N~D~E~_2X~C~I:,A~';'~'l,:;,:2o~N:;sLJt C 3I5 Exclamatory sen tences Chapler @ [ S E N T E N C E S A !'<O CLAUSES I 3 IS Compound, Double, Multiple Sentences; Complex Sentences Chapter([1;) Chapter w An VE R Il S Classificanou according to meaning; T he Formation of Adverbs; Ad ver bs and Ad jectives w ith t he same form ; Ad ve rbs with two forms; Classification acco rd ing t o Posi tion; I gv ersion with A dve rb.,;;; Compartscn: N otes on certain Ad ver bs: quite, already. still, ago, too. bllt S ITlON S A ND Reg ular a nd Irregular Verbs; Notes and Bxam ples: T r a nsitive and I nt ransit ive Verbs; Causative use of Verbs [email protected] ) I SUBOR D I!'< ...TE CI. ... USES I 32.j- Adjec ti ve.Clauses; Definin g and Xon-deftnlng Clauses; Adjective Clauses With Fo rm al Subject it; N oun clauses; Ad verb Clauses • ., CO l'ITE ~TS pagt CMpiv 1:'": \ ! C O:-: OIT IOS Al. CLAI;SE ~ f 347 "'" " H " pothctKal o n Conditions; Tenses used In Open Co n d mens: -,..C:ditions; Su ppositklns; Conditions c l<pre""ed by I n H 'hlon Chaple, IQ, & ( A S ALYS IS 0 ' ":ES T ES C E S \_ ~ " 355 I I P C :-; CTt) AT I O S l l$ F N T~:r; l-E I' '' T T E R :'; ~) CluIpter (2} [T u E PR O l" C S C1ATI O :- O F E S.G LlS H ) The Sounds of En glish ; S tress; Rh ythm; In tona tion Chapter €V A BRIEF HI ST O RY OF T HE E S G LI S H L A S G l.' A G E 4'1 m I NDEX • view. First, whi le covering in an up-to-da te manner t he particularly to meet the needs of the Jo rd p l student of St atements; Indirect Q uest io nS; Ind irect Commands Chapter @ Tuts grammar has been prepared with three objec tives in ground common to all English grammars, it is designed Ch ap/er €:9 ' D I RECT "s o Is DIRECI SP EE c nl Chapter €]) PREFA CE • • English. So, for example, thc tenses of the verb, thc use of prepositions and 'phrasal verbs', the articles, and word order are dealt with in considerable de tail; many examples are given of t he commonest sentence patterns in En glish : and there are tables showing the UJ'.e S of the determinative words -all frequent sources of difficulty to t he foreign student . Secondl y. it is intended to be really comprehensive, in that it will , as far as possible, provi de an answer to any grammatical problem the student of E nglish is likely to encoun ter. Briel accoun ts of t he h ist ory of t he language and of the phonetics and intonation of E nglish have been included also, since these matters-although not strictl y J 'grammar'-are bound to be of interest and import ance to most students of the language. Lastly , it is meant to be a p ,aclical grammar, one that is suitable both for work in class and for students working on their own ; so it is pro vided with a very full index and wi th plenty of exercises.' Although this grammar has not been directed at any particular examin ation, the needs of examination candidates ha ve been bome in mind , and it should give ample material t o prepare students for the English language papers set in any of the usual examinations. Our thanks are due to ~lr . H _ W. Acomb, ~f.A ., and to Mr. S. C. White, ~r.A . , for their assistance in the preparat ion of the exercise!' and the Key. C. E. E. J. ' A Key 10 Ihe Exctcisn is I'ubli,h....l u paratcly. ~r. E. • I l" T R OD U CTI O~ • • • :\Iost of t he earhe r /{Tammarians, particularly those of the eighteenth cent ury when the E nglish language was being 'sys tema tized'. held the view that one of their (unctions, perhaps t heir main funct ion, was to keep the language 'pure', t o stamp ou t errors that .....ere constantly creepin g in and to formul ate rules that would keep t he language on the course they believed it ought 10 take. The rules wert based on Latin syntax, and it was into th is Procrustean bed that t he grammari ans t ried to fi t t he English language. largely disregard ing the fac t that English was no longer, as it once had been , a high ly inflec ted language. In fact, in the whole of modem English there are really only two major inflections' and four or five minor c nest, for the E nglish language has changed in the 10500 years that it has been in E ngland from being a synthetic to an analytic one in which infl ection has been practically entirely re place d by two ot her phenomena: (J) Struct ural words (like/rom, in, shall , may , ollghl, ric.), and (2) Word Order. The grammarian of to-day no longer believes that he shou ld attempt the impossible task of 'con trolling' the language and direct ing the cou rse that 11(' thinks it ought to lake; he realizes that English is a living language, constantly changing and dev·eloping in accordance not wit h. man's laws but with its • own genius. x or does he th ink that the funct ion of a gr ammar book is t o lay down la w s to teach people how they ought to speak and write. His task is simply to state how, so far as he can judge . certai n people do spea k and ...'rite at the present time. The grammar 01a langu age is the scienti fic record of the actual phenomena of that language . writ ten and spoken. So. in the present volume we ha ve tried to present the facts of modem E nglish usage so far as we could ascert am them ; any Qj Qj I For S UlII ber in 1' 0 Uni ...ud Put Tense in Ye'1.5 • For Genit ive of ~oun' . Objeo:.:ti>·e for m. of PronQu ns. Com p,;ar i50n some Ad jecti ves, lId Person SingulAr in t he Simple Pr esent Te n...,. some Yer1.5, and ... le w re me...nt. of t he Suhi" ncl we ~Iood _ , .. .-t COlllprdU"lSlt'l Eugllsh (;", m lll ll r ' rules' t hat we have g iven a re merely conclusi ons .dra,\:~ h om t hese Iacts. II at any t in e a ru,le docs n?t c~lIlC\llc '''l~h t he usage. it is t he rule t hat is \\'r~ng , and It will ~e t he Job 01 fu ture grammarians t o change It. EXERCISES I From your own experience in learning English. try t~ explain how important you consider the study a grammar to be in learning a foreign language. . II Do you consider that st ud y of grammar . IS ,~re im rant or less important m learning English .an u.e it ~ ill learn ing you r own nat ive la nguage? Give reasons for your answer , • III The I nt rod uct ion t o t h is book says, on page one; 'English has changed Item a synthetic lang uage to ~ analytic one'. Compare t his with wha t has 11 ~ppen in -our o.... n language and aay whether you .t hlllk th is ch1nge has made English ea ster or more difficult for the foreign studen t t o learn. . . does t he abandonment of bel ief In ' . . ' t he 1\ I n your opml0n. grammatical r ules t end t owards a do;: t.enoTat lon In style and quality 0 1 a langn ag,; as It IS.U&eJ III every- , • day life) C H AP T E R O:SF. ( T H E P AR T S OF S P E EC H ' T he wo rds that compo!'-t' t ile English lauguago-c-or any oth er Ianguagc-c-can be classific..1 in var ious wa~';; :'l lud l time and effort h as been spent in try ing t o se ttle what names should he given t o t hese cat egor ies. I t seems t o us t hat t he re is little poi n t in giving an yt h ing bu t the mos t genera l definitions of tile Parts of Speech , in the first place because it is almost im poss ible t o give a defin ition which is exact and comprehensive, or w it h wh ic h every grammaria n wo uld agree ; second ly because it is hard ly n ecessa ry. s ince t he concept ion o f ' Nou n", ' Verb' , e tc. , ,,; 1\ a lm ost ce r tai nly be fam iliar t o t he s tuden t in his own language. It seems t o us more important t hat the st uden t should be given e xamples of the various P a rts of Speech and sh ould sec, as he will in t he pages th at follow, e xac tly ho w t hese word s beh ave. We have t herefore ad hered . in the main , t o the traditional! most familiar definitions. Un der t h is system all t he words in t he English language can be grouped . according t o t he work they do, int o eight daSS('S. TIl("SC are tilt' Parts of spe~cll . They are: (!) Words that a re the names of th ings or people or places, e.g. house. hal, iron, Mary , Russia, London, sweetness, spuch, '" crOU'd, army . \ I I \ \~orr t hat d o this wo r k a re called C,>;ouss· 1 II. W ords that c a n be used instead of nouns. so that we can re er t o people or t h ings without Teall}' nami ng them and being com pelled t o repea t t he names too frequent ly, e.g. I Professor C. C. Frle~, t hc fu rmer Director of the English Langua ge Institute of t he Universily of Michigan and per ha ps t he mcee iwnoclulie of modern gra m marians, writes; 'O n the .... bole, I beueve it wil l be found Ihat most of t he t rad itional teuns. t hollJb oft en badly na med . correspond to real /;tcll "",d dist llletions In the linguistic material. li ma)" rea!OOll&bly be doubled whether a $.en·ic=ble gram mAr .... hi<;h d isf'C n_ entirely nlt h . uch ter m. as nou n and v erb will ever be written.... To m y mind it i,not ao much t he tradi tional t erms t hat are unacceptahl e a.s t he explana· tinns of t hem whic h are normally given: ) • 4 H U. ,TR : L-JU r LC4I- . ., IUtitS ! 11..t.. c.k\tl " \.\ A Comp n Jr.t Jlsivt English Grammar " \Mj I , you, tllem , who, that, hi",ul . somtont. that do this are called PROl" OU ~ S . , Words that qualify a noun by mak ing its meaning c earer, fuller, or more exact. Examplt s: a. bad egg, a biue dress, the book is nttt'. Words that do this are ca1led{ ADJI::CT I\·I::: S ;),".r~' ~ .. There are a number of words of vkribt;; types that are sometimes grouped as adjectives. words, for example, like 4(n). Me. SotlU, tach, no, 11114(11, etc. Th ese are discussed in the section Determinatives. (Chapter Ten .) M1tJwords t hat express the idea of action or being. t.hat a t hat a person or t hing is, dots or suffers someth ing. EX02mples: Th e boys pla),ed foot hall. He is hungry. The enemy was dt/ f alld. Words of this kind are called {YERBS) Words t hat we can add t o a verb to make its meaning clearer. fuller or more exact. Exampu s: He ran quickly . I saw him )'eslerday . Words like these ar~ ", uH R BS . ) tvnWords that art: used WIth nou ns or pronouns (generally , bu't4t;t always, being placed in front or them] and shew-the relat ionship between the noun ?r pr~n oun and another word , often expressing abstract relat ionship of case or of t ime or place. Examples: I sent the parcel to him ; it went by air mail. The smoke went up t he chimney , The desk was nea r the window. Words that do work like this arelPR EPOsITJO~SJ Words that are used t o join words, phrases or sentences, Exa mples: J ack and Jill; a boy with a dirty lace but a pleasan t smile, He worked hard bu4ust he wan ted to succeed. \ ...'ords like this are(co·q usCnOl's J ' VIIU Words that express a sudden feeling or emotiorr' These words do not enter into the syn tact ical construc tion of the sentence. Examples: .- - G?:\ u:II\ ! e.tl;,.; p::o r tJ~'> ,, _~ - _ _. , , Words like t hese ar4 n ERJECTfOXS J '1 ",I I" _ ..,.(1 .j'" , • • Thr H ITls of Spach ful.oI.j - t ~ "'TYOI,I.> .~ \ b'""cmj /lt llo/ OM A M Yl\ • OJ, ! 'f dowl _owuvIY -. xC.Tl12>-. ...... Wory'y ~ c.o~ t: ~ - - I ( j . I..\ S S I H C \1/ 0 S It is most important to remember that words are classified into l'a rl ~ of speech accord ing 10 tlu-ir run ct tcn. that is ncconlmg to thr work t hat they do and not according to their form. There are in fact a grsar many words that can be two • • three or even more parts of speech arrording to the work they do. Take for example these sentences. -( I f lie came by a Yery k ISt train. -f~ ~ William ran very l p sl, ~3j. They are going to 7,:!!/ for t hree days; during that time t hey won 't eat a nything. ..(4)- At the end of his three day lfEl he will have a very light meal. In (r) f ast is an adjective, in (2) it is nn a,I\'('rl1, in (3) a verb, and in (4) a noun . Or note th e differing uses of wal, h in: ~ly fat her gave me a watch fo r my birrh.ln y I am going to waf,h a football ma tch . Hex is a geed Tcnfdl dog. Or of spring in: The sP,illg of my watch is broken. The dog tried to sp ring ever the gate t Jove sp,i n~ flowers. w ords like drink, look , smoke, ~as/', ~wim , J, i,,( . I,)' are aljgenerally used as verbs, bu t . especially in familiar ccnvcrsation , we pu t ' hI!l'( a' before t hem ('h:\\"e a drink. look, t ry, etc.'), and t hey become nouns. Words like shoulder, head, Jingtr, eye, elbow. hand , etc.. arc generally nouns: but we can 'shoulder our way' , 'head a football or a procession', 'fillger an object', 'tye a person ' , 'tlb<nc someone else aside' or 'hand him a cu p of tea'. And then these words are all verbs. - E XEUCI SES I Use the following words as (a ) 110l1 nS, and (b) verbs: 'l'~ 1;"(..> house, iron, crowd. tie , sm okt , dreu , ai r. boo:', step. c- ~ .-- l~ ..;, ~_ I ... LP , L,lt:.... ",: .;, LoP hcrroly - hl-(,,"a ~ " _ / b,/A.h.1'l t ?-:,,:'~ .. L,.... J 6 A Compreh," ISiu E"gli5h (.,"'dm UUl T II Use the follo'lnng as (a) n o uns. and (b) verbs. and indicat e the change in p ronunciation : objet" p reu'lt, rerord, p odwce. confiia, cOM ,"l, ih5trt , UI"Ud. perottit. .-\dd to the list of such words. III Substitu t e pronouns fo:r the nc une a nd nou n ph rues I I underl ined in the fo llo....i ng sentences. wh ich are im possi ble or inelegan t as th e)" ~ U.n,l: I . Joh n looked a t ~ Iary . but Mary was look inl: a t )tary in th e looking' l;!ass.a. If you don' t want the paper. give I t to ~ person who does . J . The speaker looked hi s q uest ioner in th e eye ; t hen the s peaker gave his questioner his a nswer. 4. Oxford (Oxford is fa mous lor its un iversity) is now becoming indus trialized . I I I IV(a) I nsert s uitable adjec tives where the d ashes s tand: I. , ...re didn ' t see each other agiJ.n for a t ime. 2. I n spit e of h is streng th l,1.e ...·as to s wim across the - - river, as til e cu rren t was t oo . J. The car t urned t he corner a t - - speed 4. The - - cat la y sl~ping in th e - - sunshine. 5. The door is bu t t he windows a re -. I V (b) I nsert suitable adverbs where tile d-ashes stand ; • • gettin g da.rk w hen we began t o I . I t ....as _ climb t he - - rising incline. '1 . The men were not _ - - a wake. J. H e was - - accused of the crime and acq uitted. 4. I have eggs a nd bacon fo r brea kfas t, but - - I tak e fish . S' Ha ve you - - been to the Zoo ? Yes, I go t here . \' N a me t he parts of speech of t he words und erlined in t he follow ing sen tences: J . It'. hard wo rk , but I know you can work hud . a. He'."'ikid keen t o get on, bu t now th at his-;;;;t friend"i'Sdead, he is finding li'ie"deadlv mono: t onOU5. MOOotony is nea rly a !wa,'s a~ l v_ J . He struck low. Cli m b hill"h. T he ncwers look nke. Cu t th;5i"K; (!$ t hin .- r h,' Parts Qj Spud, \ ' r ).[:lk.., sc.. u teuc es !lsill!> eac h of t he jullo \\ ll1 l: words as h \ " di fieren t parts of spcoech (not n c.;o:;,..<;,;. ri l\· in tbc same M'nlefl(e i: 3m' $3 , ' wha t rarl~ o f ~r...,....,:h l hc\" a re; A lIglU I (""Glu l); (l /ttTll<ltt ; fllIIwk; ".;.·..I i.J ; ..1Ull f; f"qU#tU. [X. ll.- ), Iolrk wllere the stre,,-~ fa lls in each exampte.] VII P ick ou t t he verbs in th is 1"'''-'l.a lle and dassifv t hem as ex pressi ng (i) action, (ii) a sla te. . J oh n was late. H e h ur ried down to brea kfast , said somet hin g t o h is fa t her. wh ich t he la tter d id no t seem to unders tand. glan ced at the clock. got eve n more worned a nd r ushed out of t he I,OUse. He doubted whe the r he would e ver become m anager. for he had been repr im a nded t oe oft en for not bein g punctual. VI II Pic k o ut fo ur prepositions a nd three conju nct ions from the passage in question VI I. IX R epla ce t he <lashes by s uit a ble in terjec tio ns or exclam a tions: (ttl - , I eliel no t s ucceed! (b) _ , whe re ha"e yo u been all t t~ is t im e ? (e). no, I really could n't! (dl t here $ a car coming! (..) - -. 1 k'I" II' that wo ukl ha ppen! X Arran g:e t he ....ords in the following passage in...
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