Argentina Ian Estevez, Leslie Perez, Emily Hernandez Period 4
Vocabulary ● Viceroyalty: a territory ruled by a viceroy. ● Viceroy: a ruler exercising authority in a colony on behalf of a sovereign. ● Spaniard: a native or inhabitant of Spain, or a person of Spanish descent. ● Junta: a revolutionary government or meeting. ● Cabildo: a town or local government council.
Before Independence ● Argentina originated in the 16th Century. ● Argentina was part of the Viceroyalty of South America (Virreinato del Rio de la Plata). ● Buenos Aires was, and still is the capital of Argentina. ● The Paraná River remains to be a prominent route for linking cities in Buenos Aires ("Father of the Waters" Sebastian Cabot in 1526). ● Charles IV was the king at the time, having been allied with Napoleon before France’s betrayal.
Social Structure ● Peninsulares-Spaniards or the Portuguese ● Creoles- Spaniards born in Latin America ● Mestizos-Europeans and Indians ● Mulattoes- Europeans and Africans ● Africans/Natives- Africa
● There were two types of groups: the revolutionaries and realists. ● They had many rich resources that lead to many violent arguments. ● Cisneros renounced his post as viceroy, as an angry crowd gathered at the open cabildo. ● Tension started to increase; war was on the horizon. Social Rivalries & Tensions
Developments Towards Independence ● The roots of the Argentine War of Independence actually lie in the Napoleonic Wars of 1803 - 1815. ○ During the Napoleonic Wars came about the battle for the Iberian Peninsula between France & Spain against Great Britain & Portugal. ○ This was called the Peninsular War, which lasted from 1807 - 1814. ● Napoleon began this war in 1807 when he ordered Portugal to close its ports to Britain, and declare war on them as well. ○ When Portugal hesitated to act, Napoleon swiftly sent an army of 30,000 troops marching straight through Spain (its ally at the time) to Portugal to capture it. ○ Although the troops succeeded, they lingered in their control over the northern parts of Spain they had crossed through. ○ From here, France began to turn on Spain.
France’s Betrayal ● Spain couldn’t manage to organize their government to fight back, so fearing a hostile takeover, Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy and King Charles IV attempted to flee to South America.
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- Fall '19
- Buenos Aires, Primera Junta