PSYC 1001-300midterm #2 study guide

PSYC 1001-300midterm #2 study guide - CHAPTER 7 - MEMORY...

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CHAPTER 7 – MEMORY MODULE 20 – THE FOUNDATIONS OF MEMORY The initial process of recording information in a form usable to memory, a process called encoding , is the first stage in remembering something. Memory specialists speak of storage , the maintenance of material saved in the memory system. If the material is not stored adequately, it can not be recalled later. Memory also depends on one last process – retrieval : Material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful. THE THREE SYSTEMS OF MEMORY: MEMORY STOREHOUSES According to the three-system approach to memory that dominated memory research for several decades, there are different memory storage systems or stages through which information must travel if it is to be remembered. The three-system memory theory proposes the existence of the three separate memory stores. 1. Sensory memory refers to the initial, momentary storage of information, that lasts only an instant. Here an exact replica of the stimulus recorded by the person’s sensory system is stored very briefly. 2. Short-term memory holds information for 15 to 25 seconds and stores it according to meaning rather than as mere sensory stimulation. 3. Long-term memory information is stored on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve. SENSORY MEMORY There are several types of sensory memories , each related to a different source of sensory information. There is iconic memory , which reflects information from the visual system. 130
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echoic memory , which stores auditory information coming from the ears. There are also corresponding memories for each of the other senses. Sensory memory can store information for only a very short time. If information does not pass to short-term memory, it is lost for good. Psychologist George Sperling demonstrated the existence of sensory memory in a series of clever and now-classic studies. SHORT-TERM MEMORY: GIVING MEMORY MEANING Short-term memory is the memory store in which information first has meaning, although the maximum length of retention is relatively short. The specific process by which sensory memories are transformed into short-term memories is not clear. In fact, the specific amount of information that can be held in short-term memory has been identified as seven items, or “ chunks ,” of information, with variations up to plus or minus two chunks. Some theories have this unit as four chunks. A chunk is a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short- term memory. Although it is possible to remember seven or so relatively complicated sets of information entering short-term memory, the information can not be held there very long. 131
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PSYC 1001-300midterm #2 study guide - CHAPTER 7 - MEMORY...

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