psych study guide 1

psych study guide 1 - Mid-term#1 Student study guide...

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Mid-term #1 Student study guide Chapter 1 – Introduction to psychology Module 1 – psychologists at work Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The phrase “behavior and mental processes” encompasses not just what people do but also their thoughts, emotions, perceptions, reasoning processes, memories, and even the biological activities that maintain bodily functioning. Psychologists try to describe, predict, and explain human behavior and mental processes, as well as help change and improve the lives of people and the world in which they live. The use of scientific methods allows psychologists to find answers that are far more valid and legitimate than those resulting from mere intuition and speculation, which are often inaccurate. The subfields of psychology: psychology’s family tree What are the biological foundations of behavior? How do people sense, perceive, learn, and think about the world? What are the sources of change and stability in behavior across the life span? How do psychological factors affect physical and mental health? How do our social networks affect behaviors? Module 2 – A science evolves: past, present, and future Psychologists have developed a variety of approaches to understanding behavior. Today, the field of psychology involves five major perspectives. The neuroscience perspective: blood, sweat, and fears The psychodynamic perspective: understanding the inner person The behavioral perspective: observing the outer person The cognitive perspective: identifying the roots of understanding The humanistic perspective: the unique qualities of the human species Module 3 – Psychology’s key issues and controversies The field of psychology is more unified than a first glimpse might suggest. Psychologists also agree on what the key issues of the field are. 1. Nature (heredity) versus nurture (environment) is one of the major issues that psychologists address. 2. Conscious versus unconscious causes of behavior is the second major question addressed by psychologists. 3. The next issue is observable behavior versus internal mental processes. 4. Free will versus determinism is another key issue. 5. The last of the key issues is the question of individual differences versus universal principles. Chapter 2 – Psychological research Module 4 – The scientific method The scientific method is the approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest. It consists of three main steps:
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psych study guide 1 - Mid-term#1 Student study guide...

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