Unformatted text preview: A literary Compilation
The Teaching of Literature (English 18) Presented to
The Department of English
Gensantos Foundation College
General Santos City In Partial Fulfillment
Of the course
Bachelor of Secondary Education To
Mr. Marlind L. Marcelo
instructor 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE
POETRY Haiku The Little Rain To Nature My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold The Listeners Richard Cory Tiny Feet Telephone Conversation J 435 If God said, I Made a Man Trees Sonnet 29 On His Blindness Sonnets from the Portuguese 43 From Hamlet: To Be or not to be The Man with the Hoe I Have a Dream Sonnet 18 The Road Not Taken/
Stopping on Woods on a Snowy Evening Desiderata The Lamb/The Tiger God Give us Men Rest Not Rizal, Not Yet 5
115 2 SHORT STORY The Chieftest Mourner 131 Magnificence 143 Wedding Dance 154 Scent of Apples 169 Quality 175 Footnote to Youth 181 Lady and the Tiger 192 Children of the City 202 God Sees the Truth But Waits 219 A Piece of String 234 The Emperor’s new Clothes 244 Dr. Faust 253 Love in the Cornhusks 260 The White Horse of Alih 265 War 271 The Cask of Amontillado 276 The Killers 285 Ang Istorya ng Taxi Driver 297 Doll House 304 The Virgin 310 The Dancers 313
3 New Yorker in Tondo 332 Les Miserables 335 NOVEL Gods and Goddesses 360 Illiad and Odysses 399 The Catcher in the Rye 404 ESSAYS Of Idleness 417 Friendship 420 Of Studies 423 On Doors 427 4 NAME : JOBERLIE RICAFRENTE AGE : 25 YRS. OLD DATE OF BIRTH : MARCH 21, 1994
5 BIRTH PLACE : DAVAO CITY STATUS : SINGLE RELIGION : ROMAN CATHOLIC GOALS IN LIFE : TO BE A PROFESSIONAL TEACHER MOTTO : “IF OTHERS CAN DO IT, I CAN DO IT BETTER” NAME : ROGELYN A. RESTAURO AGE : 21 YRS OLD DATE OF BIRTH : JAN.25,1998 BIRTH PLACE : MAASIM, SARANGANI PROVINCE
6 ADDRESS : KABLACAN,MAASIM SAR.PROV. STATUS : SINGLE RELIGION : ROMAN CATHOLIC GOALS IN LIFE : TO FIND A STABLE JOB MOTTO : “TIME IS GOLD” 7 NAME : ANGELO CHARLES REYES AGE : DATE OF BIRTH : BIRTH PLACE : NORTH COTABATO STATUS : SINGLE RELIGION : ROMAN CATHOLIC GOALS IN LIFE : TO HAVE A GOOD JOB MOTTO : “LIFE IS SHORT, WE MUST MAKE OUT OF IT” NAME : JOYLEN RIVERA
8 AGE : 21 YRS OLD DATE OF BIRTH : AUGUST 9,1998 BIRTH PLACE : GENERAL SANTOS CITY STATUS : SINGLE RELIGION : ROMAN CATHOLIC GOALS IN LIFE : TO PAID BACK MY PARENTS SACRIFICES MOTTO : “LIFE IS SHORTH DEATH IS SHORT” NAME : CATHERINE SALUTA AGE : 23 YRS OLD
9 DATE OF BIRTH : FEBRUARY 22,19996 BIRTH PLACE : MAITUM, SARANGANI PROVINCE ADDRESS : PALIMBANG,MAITUM SAR.PROV. STATUS : SINGLE RELIGION : GOALS IN LIFE
TO BE A ROLE MODEL BY BECOMING A
MOTTO : "POVERTY IS NOT A HINDRANCE TO SUCCESS” NAME : SHEENA MAE C. SALAZAR AGE : 31 YRS. OLD DATE OF BIRTH : OCTOBER 1, 1988 BIRTH PLACE : BRGY. FATIMA,GSC
10 STATUS : MARRIED RELIGION : ROMAN CATHOLIC GOALS IN LIFE : TO BECOME A PROFESSIONAL TEACHER MOTTO
“YOU ARE THE AUTHOR OF YOUR STORY. IF
YOU’RE NOT STUCK ON THE SAME PAGE, REMEMBER THAT ANY MOMENT,
YOU HAVE THE POWER TO WRITE A NEW CHAPTER” NAME : JUDYLEE SIMBAYA AGE : 21 YRS OLD DATE OF BIRTH : FEBRUARY 28,1998 BIRTH PLACE : NORALA, SOUTH COTABATO
11 STATUS : SINGLE RELIGION : 7TH DAY ADVENTIST GOALS IN LIFE : TO BE A FAITHFUL SERVANT OG GOD MOTTO
“IF GOD CAN TAKE AWAY SOMETHING YOU NEVER
EPECTED TO LOSE, HE COULD REPLACE IT WITH SOMETHING YOU NEVER
EXPECTED TO HAVE” NAME : AGE : DATE OF BIRTH :
12 BIRTH PLACE : STATUS : SINGLE : RELIGION : GOALS IN LIFE : MOTTO : NATURE OF LITERATURE
According to Webster’s Dictionary, Literature covers all writings of a
particular country, time, kind specially those valued for excellence of form
and expression. Some viewpoints on Literature include the following:
1. We can get the meaning of a piece of literature by having lived it
because literature is a product of and about life.
2. Life illumines literature just as literature illumines life.
3. Literary forms (which refers to a writer’s way of saying things) exist
because writers have fashioned them to serve their needs.
4. The distinguishing marks of literature are humanization and vivid
concretization and some adjectives that would describe it are
imaginative, creative, interpretative and selective.
The entire literary bulk comes in the form of NARRATION, which is a
discourse which tells a story factually or imaginatively.
Narration is the oldest form of discourse which has been practiced
longer than any other form and it I the most widely used, the major
divisions of literature are POETRY and PROSE.
Poetry can be defined as follows:
13 1. Poetry like a song is an expression of a feeling, an insight, a
discovery, it is about life.
2. Poetry is the language of the imagination, almost entirely
figurative, and also a musical literary language.
According to purpose and structure there are three groups of poetry,
1. Narrative Poetry-this includes poems that tell stories like:
a. Ballads - the narration of a story in poetry form
b. Metrical Tale - a series of events or facts told or presented
based on the metric system as a standard of measurement.
c. Epic - a story about the heroic deeds of an individual written in
verse 2. Lyric Poetry - poems in this group are subjective and intensely
a. Song - A poem easily set to music.
b. Sonnet - A fixed verse form, of Italian origin consisting of
fourteen (14) lines.
c. Elegy - A poem expressing sorrow or lamentation for one who is
d. Ode - a poem usually marked by exaltation of feeling and style.
e. Lullabies - a soothing refrain specifically a song to quiet down
children or to lull them to sleep. 3. Dramatic Poetry - Includes plays which are written in verse,
14 a. Dramatic Monologue - A literary work in which a character
reveals himself in a dramatic sketch performed by himself
b. Soliloquy - The act of talking to oneself.
c. Character Sketch - A poem which dramatizes the attributes or
features that make up and distinguish an individual.
d. Prose Poetry - A narrative in poetic form.
The essential qualities of poetry are precise diction, figurative
language, subtlety, concentration of ideas and suggestiveness.
The usual themes in poetry are: love, death, brotherhood,
inhumanity, loneliness and joy.
Poetry can do the following:
1. Move an individual to tears or laughter.
2. Stir the insights of the readers.
3. Stimulate the imagination of the reader.
4. Soothe the mind of a reader.
5. Lift the burden of a heavy heart.
6. Ease and relax tension in a troubled world.
Elements of Poetry
A. Sense - The use of words, images and symbols to produce a
A. Figure of Speech - The use of words different from its usual meaning
in order to provide emphasis, freshness of expression or clarity; it can
be produced by means of the fundamental operations, as follows: 15 a. Addition (adiecto) also called repetition/
b. Omission (deration) also called subtraction/abridgement/lack.
c. Transposition (transmutation) also called transferring.
d. Permutation (in mutation) also called
2. Connotation - the meaning assigned by the writer to the words he
uses in his literary piece.
3. Imagery - the creation of a picture or images in the mind of the
readers by use of words that appeal to the senses.
a. Visual images - use of word that appeal to the sense of sight as
in dark, scintillating and neon signs.
b. Auditory imagery - the use of words that appeal to the sense of
hearing as in loud, exposition, creaking.
c. Olfactory imagery - the use of words that appeal to the sense
of smell as in odorous, fragrant, stinks.
d. Gustatory imagery - the use of words that appeal to the sense
of taste as in succulent, sour and flavorful.
e. Tactile imagery - the use of words that appeal to the sense of
touch as in slimy, greasy and still.
f. Kinesthetic imagery - use of words that appeal to the sense of
movement as in galloping, squinting and pirouette.
g. Thermal imagery - use of words that appeal to the sense of
heat as in lukewarm, frigid and steamy 16 B. Sound - the use of tone, color, rhythm and measure to produce
euphony good sound) and harmony in poetry. 1. Tone color - the elements resulting from the use of rhyme,
repetition, and other sound devices.
2. Rhyme - the presence of words that have identical or similar
(approximate) final sounds: the recurrence of the same final sound
result in what is known as rhyme pattern such as aabb, star are,
abab star-high, are sky or abba star high sky are. a. Internal rhyme - rhyme exists within a line- in litanies of
b. Terminal Rhyme - the rhyme exists at the end of lines
Eg. God said, “I made a man
Out of clay
But so bright he, he spun
Himself to brightest day.”
3. Rhythm - the regular succession of accented and unaccented
syllables in a line, associated with the metrical feet classified below.
It may be choppy or smooth, fast or slow.
a. Iambic meter - By far, the most popular and the most
natural to English expression. Its basic unit or foot is one
unaccented syllable followed by one accented syllable. (u-)
Eg. Whose woods /these are / I think/I know.
b. Trochaic meter -The reverse of iambic meter. Each foot
consists of an accented or long syllable followed by an
unaccented short syllable (-u)
17 Swift of/foot was/Hia/watha
c. Anapestic meter - Contains in each foot two unaccented or
short syllables followed by one accented or long syllable
For the moon/ never beams/without bring/ing me
d. Dactylic meter - Opposite of anapestic. It consists of one
accented or long syllables followed by two unaccented or
eg. This is the/forest pri/meval
Seeing what the metrical units are and how many of them
occur in the line is called “scanning” a line of poetry. A one-foot line
is called monometer, two, dimeter, three trimesters, tetrameter,
pentameter, hexameter, heptameter.
C. Structure - a property which refers to the way the words are put
together or arranged such that that make sense.
1. Vertical Measure
a. Couplet - poem or stanza which has two lines
b. Triplet - a poem or stanza which has three monograming
c. Target - poem or stanza which has three lines that are
d. Terza Rima - a poem or stanza has three lines with the
following rhyme pattern- aba, bcb, cdc, ded etc.
e. Quatrain - a poem or stanza which has four lines.
g. /Quintet/Quintin - a poem or stanza which has five lines.
18 h. Sestos - a poem or stanza which has six lines
i. Septet, Octave, Monet, Etherege, - poem or stanza with
seven, eight, nine, ten lines respectively
j. Sonnet - a poem which has 14 lines.
2. Horizontal Measure
a. Monosyllabic - a line which has one syllable
Hexasyllabic, Heptasyllabic, Ovtasyllabic, Nonasyllabic,
c. Monometer - line which has one syllable
d. Dimeter, trimester, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter,
e. Parallelism - the use of similar structures in poetry and
prose works as in the poem, “Like The Molave”.
f. Ellipsis-The omission of some words or phrases to
produce a literary effect as in the “Prayer of Peace”. D. FIGURES OF SPEECH
1. Simile - is directly expressed comparison between two
dissimilar objects by means of the words like, as or as if.
2. Metaphor - gives an implied not expressed comparison to two
19 3. Personification - gives an inanimate object or an abstract idea a
human attribute or considers it a live being.
4. Apostrophe - is an address to the absent or to somebody dead
as if he were alive or to inanimate things as if they were
5. Metonymy - a name of one thing used in place of another
suggested or associated with it. It consists in giving an idea that
is so closely associated with another.
6. Antithesis - Contrast or opposition of thoughts, words or ideas.
Contrasting words or ideas make each other emphatic.
7. Hyperbole - Exaggeration for effect and not to deceive or to be
8. Irony - Method of humorous or subtly sarcastic expression in
which the intended meaning of the words is the direct opposite
of what is meant.
E. CLASSIFICATION OF POEMS
1. Narrative Poem - a poem that tells a story, which is either wholly
or partially based on the writer’s imagination. a. Epic - along narrative poem which deals with the exploits or
adventures of a hero. It is either a literary epic if it was written
by a known author.
b. Ballad - a short narrative poem which deals with single incident
and has a singable quality. It is either a literary ballad if
somebody claimed authorship or a folk ballad if no author could
be attributed to it. 20 c. Metrical Tale - a short story in verse forms which lacks the
singable quality of a ballad.
d. Metrical Romance - a short story in verse form, it differs from a
metrical tale for the reason that its subject is love. 2. Lyric Poetry - a poem that is short, at times musical, subjective, and
expressive of the writer’s thought, emotions regarding his chosen
subject, its recitation used to be accompanied by the playing of the
musical instrument called lyre. a. Ode - a poem addressed to some praised object, person, or
quality, characteristically exhortatory, and philosophical and
using an elevated tone.
b. Elegy - a poem for the dead that is far from pessimistic,
ennobling exalted in tone and offering an optimistic note in the
c. Simple lyric - a poem that is pictorial and reflective.
d. Sonnet - a poem that has q14 lines. It is classified into
Petrarchan, Shakespearean, Spenserian and Filipino.
e. Hymn - a metrical composition adapted for singing in a religious
service, like a psalm, it is a song of joy or praise to God or the
f. Psalm - a song of praise to God or the Virgin Mary.
g. Song - a melodious poem intended to be sung and readily
adapted to music.
3. Dramatic Poetry - a poem which forms part of a dramatic
presentation or which is intended to be performed on stage.
21 a. Tragedy - a drama in which the hero fails to fulfill his goal or
goals, the protagonist whose failure is attributed to his fatal
mistake (tragic flaw) cannot overcome such mistake which
inevitably results in a sad ending, for example a tragic death.
b. Comedy - a drama in which the hero succeeds in fulfilling his
gosal or goals, sometimes a comic all throughout as a comedy
of manners, or a slapstick comedy such that the viewers laugh
and laugh as they watch the performance,
c. Tragicomedy - a mere combination of a tragedy and a comedy.
It is a drama in which the hero fails with respect to some goals
but succeeds with respect to the other goals.
d. Farce - a drama written by an author whose intention is to poke
fun at the hero, his subject, oftentimes representing a public
official or a person of authority.
e. Melodrama - a drama that focuses not on the protagonist but
on the action or the situation. It is characterized by a
sentimental love story, sensational action, extravagant emotions
and a happy ending.
f. Historical Play - a drama that serves to re-enact a historical
event that plays an important role on the lives of the viewers.
g. Religious Play - a drama that serves to re-enact a biblical event
or teach a truth or truths pertaining to a certain religion.
HOW TO READ A POEM?
1. Our first contact with a poem is its title9 the poet’s first contact
with his readers. It is our introduction to what he wants to say in
his work. The title also raises a number of questions for us. 22 2. Look for signals that connect the statements in the poem to one
another as well as to the controlling idea first introduced in the
3. Can we now state the poem’s controlling idea?
PRINCIPLES TO CONSIDER IN TEACHING POETRY
1. Choose a poem that will engage your students’ interest by
leading them to a deeper understanding of themselves. The
principle focuses on emotional rather than intellectual
involvement, for self-understanding is a matter of life-long
2. In approaching the poem, start with the story , with the drama
that is at the center of every work of literature. Who is te storyteller, the speaker? What is he talking about? Where is the story
set? What happens in the course of the story?
3. Help the students to recognize, and perhaps understand the
work’s underlying cultural assumptions. The students need to be
able to identify cultural references and to associate explicit
statements with implicit culture values.
4. Take up normal matters after the first three principles have been
applied. These are the subtlest and most intimidating aspects of
poetry-rime, meter, figures of speech, imagery, symbolism.
Present them as simply the ways in which the author plays with
language, working within and expanding linguistic ang poetic
5. After taking a poem apart, take time to reassemble it, to see how
all the elements –story, cultural assumptions, and techniquework together to create meaning. The step of realizing sound and
sense, form and function, is indispensable, for their combination
is the essence of literary creation.
23 HOW TO ANALYZE A POEM
1. Title - What does the title tell us? How does the title help in our
understanding of the poem?
2. Word Meaning - List any unfamiliar words. Look up for denotative
and connotative meanings.
3. Imagery - Sight, Sound, Feel, Taste, Smell-the images appeal to.
What does each image suggest? Point out related images.
4. Symbols - List any words you think may be symbols. Tell what the
symbols may stand for.
5. Figures of Speech - Point out figures of speech and explain what
ideas are carried over by the figures of speech.
6. Sound - Are there any imitative words whose sounds is an echo of
the sense, such as hiss, clap, bang>?Are there any examples of
alliteration harsh words or lines?
7. Rhyme - is end of line rhyme used. Label the rhyme pattern. Is the
rhyme pattern regular example aabb, abab, or abcabc or aabbcc?
8. Rhythm - is te rhythm regular in each line ? Does the rhythm wary
from line to line? How des the rhythm aid the mood of the poem?
Explain why the rhythm changes.
9. Theme - What purpose does the poem serve? Is the purpose
stated or suggested? If stated where?
To enjoy the meaning of the poem, teachers ordinarily ask these:
Who is the speaker or persona? What sort of person is he? To whom is he
speaking? What is the time and place) the setting) of the poem? What is the
event or the occasion? Can you state in a simple sentence the poem’s
central purpose? 24 SUGGESTED READINGS:
A. POETRY Matsuo Basho - Haiku
Tu Fu - The Little Rain
Rabindranath Tagore - To Nature
William Wordsworth - My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold
Walter de la Mare -The Listeners
Edwin Arlington Robinson - Richard Cory
Gabriela Mistral -Tiny Feet
Wole Soyinka - Telephone Conversation
Emily Dickinson - J 435
Rudyard Kipling - If
Jose Garcia Villa - God said, I Made a Man
Joyce Kilmer - Trees
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 29
John Milton - On His Blindness
Elizabeth Barett Browning - Sonnets from the Portuguese 43
William Shakespeare - From Hamlet: To Be or not to be
Edwin Markha - The Man with the Hoe
Martin Luther King - I Have a Dream
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 18
Robert Frost - The Road Not Taken/ Stopping on Woods on a Snowy
Max Ehrmann - Desiderata
William Blake - The Lamb/The Tiger
Josiah Gilbert Holland - God Give us Men
Francisco Javines - Rest Not Rizal, Not Yet 25 MATSUO BASHO
Bashō, in full Matsuo Bashō, pseudonym of Matsuo
Munefusa, (born 1644, Ueno, Iga province, Japan—
died Nov. 28, 1694, Ōsaka), the supreme Japanese
haiku poet, who greatly enriched the 17-syllable
haiku form and made it an accepted medium of
Interested in haiku from an early age, Bashō at first
put his literary interests aside and entered the
service of a local feudal lord. After his lord’s death
in 1666, however, Bashō abandoned his samurai (warrior) status to devote
himself to poetry. Moving to the capi...
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