Week 10: W. Brown ReadingThe Ottoman, Saafavid and Mughal Empires-1453 Turkish warriors (Osmani clan or Ottomans according to Europe) or Ghazis conquered Constantinople, ending 11 centuries of Byzantine rule.-The Clan of Osman earned huge prestige due to this conquest, their leader Mehmed earned the title of the “Conqueror”. -In 1517 another Osmani leader Selim ‘the inexorable’ defeated the Egyptian Mamluks in Syria increasing the size and extent of Ottomans to pre-Islamic Byzantine empire.-Later during reign of Suleiman ‘the Magnificent’ empire grew further and the ottoman army became the terror of Europe.-In 1501 another Muslim empire was on rise, led by the leader (Ismail) radical Shi’a sufi order conquered Tabriz. He established Twelver shi’ism as the creed of the state. -Ismail thus became the founder of the Safavid Empire.-He was vehemently against the Sunni creed, as he enforced the ritual cursing of the first three caliphs, disbanded Sunni tariqas and seized their assets, faced Sunni ulema with choice of conversion, death or exile, and imported Shia scholars to replace them. -Twelver shia creed might have dominated if not for the emerging Ottoman state.-The divide between sunni and shia along geographical lines grew when the ottomans defeated the rebellion of safavid sufi group Qizil-bash in Anatolia, a Turk land (red heads- due to their wearing of red turbans)-In shia region hatred for sunni’s grew, while remembrance of Husayn at karbaala gained popularity.-In the east Babur, a descendant of Timur after defeating the Muslim rulers of Delhi at the battle of Panipat led to the foundation of Mughal Empire.-Babur’s grandson Akbar has been famous with Indian historians for his abolishment of jizya (head tax) on non-muslims, setting aside the death penalty for apostasy, prohibiting Hindu girls from converting to Islam, and patronizing the building of temples.The Rise of European Power-In 1498 Vasco de Gama reached India, more and more Portuguese ships ruled the long-range sea routes, paving the way for European monopoly on long-range trade.-Ferdinand Magellan’s circumnavigation made it possible for European navies and merchant shipsto reach most corners of the world.-The following centuries saw European Imperialism. India feeling the earliest impact: Portuguese dominating the Indian Ocean and establishing coastal colonies in the 16thcentury. British made their presence felt in the 17thcentury by establishing the (EIC) East India Company ‘presidencies’ in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay. -EIC indulged in colonial rule when Robert Clive replaced the ruler of Bengal with a British Puppet.
-By 1803 British controlled Delhi, and the Mughal emperor became a puppet. By 1857 India was being ruled though indirect rule and became the Jewel of the Empire.