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Unformatted text preview: The Western Sudan ● Islam expands more with Songhay's existence ● Songhay ○ Leaders (architects of Songhay) ■ Sonni Ali (1464-1492) ■ Askia Mohammed (1493-1529) ○ Did not control gold fields only access to gold fields ○ Did control Salt mines in the desert and trade more generally ○ Used trade and Islam to expand power ○ Almoravids were the problems to the Europeans ■ Called moors ■ Tuareg-Berber ○ Developed a Professional Army and Navy ○ Multicultural Empire that included Mande Speakers Such as Malinke, Bambara, Mandinke, but also Mossi Tuaregg and Soninke ○ Elaborate Bureaucracy created ■ Ministries much like our federal government is made ● Songhay Faced ○ New Atlantic trade ○ Military pressure from the Almoravids (Soldiers of Fortune/ Mercenaries from Morroco around 16 th Century) ■ Death Blow in 1590-1591 when Almoravids destroy State searching for riches ● 4,000 Almoravids defeat about 30,000 Songhay soldiers ■ Almoravids had guns while Songhay had lances, bows and swords ■ Economic system outgrew itself as Atlantic world opened up ■ New sources of wealth ● Gold and Silver ● Themes for Segu ○ Spread of Islam ○ Impact of Slave Trade on both worlds ○ Coming of Europeans and Colonial occupation and economic change ● Timbuktu became an intellectual center of North Africa ○ Spread of Islam helped ○ After 1300, it became a market town ● Trans-Saharan Trade ○ still active today ○ 60 days were needed to walk across the Sahara ○ main destination was Cairo ● What the trade meant for Europe and the Americas vs. African Societies ○ Chattel slavery ■ people are considered master's property ○ Northeast supplied the wood for ships and fish in slave trade ○ Slavery helped stimulate the Industrial Revolution ■ Textiles were the main reason. Textiles used cotton ○ Ten to fifteen million people were involved in slave trade ● African Societies ○ Social, Economic and Political Consequences ○ Political Consequences ■ corruption around the Atlantic World ■ do what ever it took to make a profit ○ Aro Traders ■ region to the south of the Ibo ■ masters of creeks and inlands of Niger delta ■ become slave traders ○ Dahomey is located at present day Benin ○ Europeans robbed Africa of helpful people and tropical farmers ○ Nobody spoke out against the trade ○ Fulani ■ called Peulh by French The Spread of Islam in West Africa During the 19 th Century or the 13 th Century ● The role of jihad in spreading Islam ○ holy war ○ bringing none believers into religion ● Millenarian Ideas and the Coming of the Mahdi ○ belief that things have gotten so bad, that the end of the world is in sight ○ Mohammad is the only prophet ● Role of Brotherhoods ○ Qadiriya ○ Tijaniyya ■ emerges in 19...
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