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We should begin Ch. 5 of B/S today but We won’t finish it. PP. 148ff. may be rough going for you but it’s PP.
some of my favorite material in this book and, I think, very useful to improving your German. I’ll make it digestible for you. —and we’ll either skip ch. 6 or handle it in just a few questions. Berlinish audio/transcript today. 5/19/2009 1 Chapter 4, Language Chapter and Society: the new the dialectology What is a NORM and why are they today, What NORM taken alone, almost useless in language variation studies? Non-mobil, older, Non rural males rural 5/19/2009 3 Poor ole Norm! Poor
Speech communities (especially urban Speech ones) are not homogenous. not Many more people live in urban areas Many than in the 19th c. So, 19th c. methodology had to be So, updated. 5/19/2009 4 Next question: Next
What are the "five considerations that What "five should always be taken into account"? (the five methodological considerations in variations studies) Informant selection Informant Data collection Data Object of analysis Object Instrument of analysis and… Instrument Interpretation and presentation of results Interpretation
5/19/2009 5 "the main requirement for satisfactory "the practice in dialectology today is explicitness" (p. 103) explicitness
For example, in (all these things)… For (1) informant selection--i.e. individuals or (1) informant groups; choosing groups may hide significant information, e.g. … that one member in the group is aware of that the social connotations of a certain variable, thus becoming a marker, e.g…. marker, 5/19/2009 6 "the main requirement for satisfactory "the practice in dialectology today is explicitness" (p. 103) explicitness
Linguistic Markers: Linguistic As in hypercorrections---what’s that? As hypercorrections Like between you and I; idear, Ger ichLike between ich sound in words like Fisch, Tisch (in Fisch, Düsseldorf area), etc. Can you think of others? (Found any in Can Sick?)
5/19/2009 7 the five methodological the considerations
(2) data collection--i.e. preferably by an individually (2) data tape recorded interview
Labov's Observer's Paradox! What’s this? Labov's Observer's The only way to get good data is for a The researcher to ask an informant for a taped interview and yet, because of the formality of the interview the informant is more likely to give forms that s/he might not s/he necessarily use, even hyper corrected forms!
5/19/2009 8 the five methodological the considerations
Labov pioneered so much, but one thing was insisting on Labov attention paid to register: reading style, careful reading pronunciation, casual speech, etc., and how to elicit these. etc., and William Labov (younger and old) William 5/19/2009 9 the five methodological the considerations
Another, newer approach: social networking (e.g. Another, social nominate a friend). Now, Google searches, YouTube, etc., to collect data! Now, Google But be careful! 5/19/2009 10 the five methodological the considerations
(3) object of analysis--precisely define (3) object the variety under analysis, e.g. a purely local variety, a regional one, purely local regional both?, only the local variety of women women under the age of 25? etc., 25 also which level of language, e.g. also level phonology, grammar, vocabulary? etc. 5/19/2009 11 the five methodological the considerations
(4) the instrument of analysis--e.g. the (4) the structural variable, a structural or generative structural approach, a statistical approach? etc.; To elaborate a little on these, say (r) versus /r/ To versus rules (e.g. ordering) versus, using rules numerical equations (e.g. chi-square = chi ‘goodness of fit’, regression equations = regression expression of the relationship between two or more variables, etc.)—notice color coding! The structural variable needs clarifying: The structural needs
5/19/2009 12 the five methodological the considerations: the structural structural variable
The structural variable was Labov’s idea. structural was It is an account of linguistic features correlated correlated with EXTRA-linguistic variables, e.g. age, sex, socio-economic class, and so on. The Social Stratification of English in New York The (1966) and later; Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular (in which (in
he more or less single-handedly made known that African American English is a separate variety of English-- and not some deficient form of Eng)
5/19/2009 13 the structural variable the structural
L. used department stores that catered to different clientele (social strata) and found, among other things, that speakers will use different versions different of the same linguistics phenomenon, depending on where they are and who they are on talking to (to whom they are talking! ☺ ) they In the NYC study he was mostly interested in the American /r/ sound and whether folks dropped it in words like, park the car, or re-inserted it park falsely, as in the idear is… the 5/19/2009 14 the structural variable the structural
So, just to be clear: before, e.g. with regard to before, the sound system, researchers would work out the given phonemes of a given population. phonemes But now, Labov was telling people, ‘you have to see what all those variations of the phonemes (i.e. allophones of all your phonemes) actually actually correlate with’ –in short, there is no such thing no as “free variation”, and finally… as
5/19/2009 15 the structural variable the structural
‘Otherwise, you may be missing some important variation in the population’ . E.g. variation leads variation to language change. Thus the dictum from famed American linguist Thus Leonard Bloomfield that language change is not is observable was falsified! 5/19/2009 16 Back to the “five methodological Back considerations”
Sorry about that but it was important ☺ Sorry Again,… Again, Informant selection Informant Data collection Data Object of analysis Object Instrument of analysis and… Instrument
5/19/2009 17 the five methodological the considerations
(5) the interpretation and presentation (5) the of results--e.g. of maps and dictionaries are the older maps older method, though still viable for certain purposes (B/S say "where differences are considered absolute", p. 104), And the newer approaches? And 5/19/2009 18 the five methodological the considerations
Newer: charts, graphs —like in your Newer: chapter—from the use of statistics (Chi square, various types of regressions, etc., showing correlations between linguistic and non-linguistic features). There are also new types of rule There formulations in linguistics (formerly optional rules, now called constraints in in Optimality Theory.) Optimality
5/19/2009 19 What is the significance of the What Nauborn study?
It was the first study in sociolinguistics in an It first urban area anywhere! urban anywhere! Else Hofmann tried to document the effects of a Else larger town on the speakers of a smaller one. Nauborners were commuting to the larger Nauborners Wetzlar (about 30 miles north of Frankfurt) and Hofmann correlated age, education, training, gender, and social mobility with some gender and linguistic factors.
5/19/2009 5/19/2009 20 What is the significance of the What Nauborn study?
Some results: Some "the strongest rejection of village life...was found among "the young women, many of whom felt insulted at being interviewed in dialect" (p. 105). Hofmann found conflicting attitudes toward dialect use. Hofmann In general, the older more conservative, or those who had less to do with "outsiders“, tended to use dialect for local identity, while the other group thought dialect use was a hindrance to social mobility. This correlates somewhat with dialect use country-wide: This in general, Germans living in the south tend to put more stock in the former, those in the north in the latter.
5/19/2009 5/19/2009 21 Tell me something about the variation Tell found in Germany in social groups and in individuals
Groups: Groups socio-economic class, less important in some socio areas (villages, for instance), though also different from country to country, c.f. England (India!), with Germany and the USA. B/S cite some specific studies; in many studies, B/S e.g. the UC’s will speak the standard, and not know, or not claim to know dialect; not 5/19/2009 5/19/2009 22 Tell me something about the variation Tell found in Germany in social groups and in individuals
linguistic insecurity is often found in the UMC’s— linguistic what’s that? i.e. they often like to use dialect but also i.e. sometimes feel inhibited by a consciousness of their social position; 5/19/2009 23 Tell me something about the variation Tell found in Germany in social groups and in individuals
Interestingly, a number of studies have found Interestingly, that you are more apt to keep your phonology (or those phonological features that differ from the standard, and use those to maintain your identity—not that the speakers are always conscious of this!—while using the morphology and syntax of the standard. Perhaps not too surprising is the fact that a lot of Perhaps studies have also found the middle classes as the agent of change (i.e. lower classes fixed agent (i.e. firmly in dialect, upper class in the standard.
5/19/2009 24 Variation in social groups: more Variation findings…
in many studies, the very young and the very old in speakers from villages tend to speak alike, while students or older pupils (who may also go off to school) will tend to speak a regional dialect--in the south, and the (colloquial) standard in the north; in some countries or regions, women tend to speak more in dialect, while in others it is the men, e.g. in the Nauborn study and in some studies in England (see Chambers and Trudgill) women tended to speak less dialect, but in less some studies from southern Germany, the women tended to speak more dialect. Why do you think this is? more 5/19/2009 25 Variation in individuals Variation
B/S discuss some interesting studies here. B/S These just show how focusing on groups alone might hide some interesting or hide significant results, like linguistic markers, linguistic etc. Certainly things like attitude, ambition, Certainly prestige and local identity play a significant role in the use of dialect.
And these kinds of things are sometimes ignored. And
5/19/2009 26 Variation in individuals Variation
Cf. the example of the foreman/managers Cf. who spoke and understood more standard language, or the sexist remark about the women not knowing the technical things at the factory. See fig.’s 4.2 & 4.3 from your chapter (as in next slides). 5/19/2009 27 A marker for KL24. marker
In a group study, KL24’s response would In be ignored or left unexplained but this “exception” clearly shows that the informant views the feature as a linguistic marker. 5/19/2009 28 KL24 (from before) and KL21 (a KL24 woman!) rated worst and KL25 (the department head) the best
Missing from the top of this chart is an Missing explanation of “C” and “N”: “C” = ‘clear’ and “N” = ‘not clear’ 5/19/2009 29 Okay, now we know a bit about Okay, sociolinguistics…
And it’s advantages over traditional And dialectology Let’s now look at an urban area in Let Germany and see what sort of results we have found BERLIN BERLIN 5/19/2009 30 List an example or two of BUV in each of the List following areas: (1) vocabulary, (2) phonology, (3) pragmatics, (4) attitudes. You have a handout from me on this in You your APS reader. I’ll bring in a CD of some Berlinish with a transcript. Let’s see then, how many of these we can find. 5/19/2009 31 A few examples of BUV in (1) vocabulary few BUV Can you name any? Can Schrippe for ‘Brötchen’; knorke for ‘chic’, Schrippe knorke though now somewhat old-fashioned; mohndoof ‘extremely stupid’ and mohndoof Jedächtniswärmer for…what do you Jed think? ‘beret’! ☺
5/19/2009 32 A few examples of BUV in (1) vocabulary few BUV the next two as neologisms & (further) sign the of their verbal creativity: verbal Molleküle ‘cold beer’ d.h. eine kühle Mollek eine Molle! Molle heißt ‘beer’ ☺ and hei Mollenfriedhof for…? Mollenfriedhof ‘beer bellie’! ☺ 5/19/2009 33 (2) BUV phonology (2)
[j] for /g/ in certain positions (in fewer than [j] fewer earlier but with no danger of being lost-just lexically rather than phonologically lexically phonologically conditioned).e.g.: jemakt ‘gemacht’; jut ‘gut’ jemakt jut 5/19/2009 34 5/19/2009 5/19/2009 35 (2) BUV phonology (2)
The <g> is actually (even!) a little more The complicated than this since it can be realized as [j], [x], [ҫ] and [ɣ] ! [e:] for [ai]: enmol ‘einmal’; [e:] enmol [k] for /ç/: ik ‘ich’ (only!), [k] ik [o:] for [au] in och, ‘auch’ (and only a few [o:] och other words, thus also lexically lexically conditioned);
5/19/2009 5/19/2009 36 (2) BUV phonology (2) [u] for [au]: uf for ‘auf’; and [u] uf [t] for standard [s]: dat (and in other high [t] dat (and frequency words) 5/19/2009 37 [e:] -> [u] -> [t] -> [j] -> [k] -> [o:] [e:]
Where -> means ‘implies the presence of’ Where ??? But [k] in one word! ???
5/19/2009 38 BUV phonology BUV
By putting some of these features together By in a word, you sometimes get some funny results. E.g. what do you suppose these words are in standard German (tip: both are a part of anatomy)… Ooren and Oan? (sp?) Ooren and Oan? Wants some rules for (g)? Wants 5/19/2009 39 The BUV Variable (g) The
(g) > [j]/#__ (V__V) (g) > ([ҫ]/ +frt V__#) ([ > ([x]/+ba,loV__#) ([ɣ]) +ba,loV__V) ([x]/+ba,loV__#)
All this means: the variable (g) becomes a [j] in All initial position and medially between vowels. It becomes [ҫ] word or morpheme finally after a front vowel and [x] finally after a back or low vowel and [ɣ] between vowels when the first is a back vowel!
5/19/2009 40 The BUV variable (g) The
Examples: gemacht ~ jemacht; gegen ~ Examples: jemacht jejend; Krieg ~ Kriech; flog ~ floch; jejend Kriech floch Augen ~ Ooren! Ooren AND keep in mind that it is being found AND less and less (if at all) word initially before a consonant (like r – grün ~ jrün) jr But I promise not to make you reproduce But that last slide! ☺
5/19/2009 41 The BUV variable (g) The
Wondering if you’ll try to impress me with Wondering reproducing this—but you don’t have to! Maybe just say something like “(g) is usually realized as [j], as in gemacht ~ gemacht jemacht but it is more complicated than jemacht this since it is also realized as some other sounds, like those in ich and ach (and the ich ach voiced velar fricative which a lot of Germans use for the trilled /r/)”
5/19/2009 42 The Benrath line problem The
These are the traditional markers of the These Berlin dialect but note how odd it is (perhaps) that all the consonants are basically shifted (except for /t/ in a few high frequency words and /k/ in ik -- thus ik most being lexically conditioned, as we lexically conditioned, as say.—See last three slides for what we mean by phonologically conditioned! :-p phonologically Why? Remember the following map? Why?
5/19/2009 43 Isoglossenbündel Isoglossenb 5/19/2009 44 The Benrath line problem The
And now you know why some put the And Benrath line above Berlin and others above below Berlin! below 5/19/2009 5/19/2009 45 The Benrath line problem The
Berlin was formerly a Platt variety with no shifted Berlin consonants (and other Platt features) but as THE seat of THE power and prestige and with the leveling that occurred with other German speakers moving there, you ended up with a variety that is a bit odd. Note that Hannover is also near this line. Note Folks say the best German is spoken there, but that’s a bit of a myth, isn’t it?
5/19/2009 46 (3) BUV pragmatics (3)
the Berliner Schnauze, a style of speech, the Berliner or a discourse strategy, characterized as witty and humorous, characterized witty and aggressive, loud, but also creative and creative playful with the language, powerful verbal expression, etc. powerful Schnauze means ‘muzzle’ or ‘snout’. cf. Schnauze Yiddish, schnozz! schnozz
5/19/2009 5/19/2009 47 (4) BUV attitudes (4)
generally negative social prestige attached generally to BUV--in (former) West Berlin; West they call it ordinär, vulgär, brash, bad they ordin grammar, but there is some "covert prestige" in certain (usu. former eastern) sectors. 5/19/2009 5/19/2009 48 Berlinish Berlinish
The German Wikipedia website for The Wikipedia “Berliner Dialekt” or “Berlinisch” is pretty good. --a few things from there . http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berliner_Dialekt http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berliner_Dialekt See maybe also some of my photos of See Berlin. Folder = Berlin 08A , and from Berlin and middle of Munich Berlin 08 folder Munich folder 5/19/2009 49 Back to the study questions: Back
We’ll look at and listen to some Berlinish We when we finish this chapter. Let’s go on to the last study. Let Or….maybe not??? ☺ Or 5/19/2009 50 Back to the study questions: Back
What percentage of the people in the Erp What project claimed to speak dialect? Also, how do B/S describe the attitude of Also, the (a) typical worker, (b) typical dialect (a) speaker, and (c) typical newcomer? Finally, is the local dialect declining in Finally, usage? We’ll address these one by one. We
5/19/2009 51 Erp Erp
a study about a rural community and how it has study rural increasingly come under the influence by a neighboring city, namely Cologne (Köln). If nothing else this study represented a "major If "major innovation in German dialectology" by viewing the informants, for the first time, as "thinking human "thinking beings rather than merely anonymous suppliers of authentic speech" (p. 127). I.e. researchers did an attitude study and involved the I.e. attitude speakers more directly by asking them (most probably as the last step of the interview) how they themselves how perceived their use of dialect, whether they could distinguish various varieties between traditional dialect, the regional colloquial, and the standard, etc.
5/19/2009 52 What percentage of the people in the What Erp project claimed to speak dialect?
64%, though unsure if they know what 64%, dialect is! 5/19/2009 53 How do B/S describe the attitude of the (a) How typical worker, (b) typical dialect speaker, and (c) typical newcomer?
(a) typical worker, "dialect is no longer the main (a) variety, experience of dialect mixed but evaluation positive" (p. 128) (b) typical dialect speaker, "dialect is still the (b) main variety but is losing influence to the standard, negative experiences but positive evaluation" (p. 128) (c) typical newcomer, "does not envisage (c) standard replacing dialect, no negative experience, positive evaluation"(p. 128)
5/19/2009 54 And finally, And
dialect usage: "little sign of the dialect dialect declining" (p. 129); B/S do not say directly but their report on this B/S research indicates, e.g. in fig. 4.6--choosing a variety depending on in interlocutor, like teacher, priest, child, older interlocutor relative, etc., use of traditional dialect, versus say colloquial use and standard all very nearly in a diglossic diglossic situation; such a situation tends to preserve not not kill varieties.
5/19/2009 5/19/2009 55 5/19/2009 5/19/2009 56 Keep in mind… Keep
Keep in mind that we are in the north. In Keep north the south, you’d get other results. It’s south interesting to see how stable the dialect is here near Cologne but an older study now. Wondering if they but have updated it. Big brownie points if you find out for me! 5/19/2009 5/19/2009 57 How many speech varieties could be How identified in the study and what does this say about variation in German in general? difficult to tell, at first 13 but then difficult "clustering" allowed the researcher to postulate 6 or so. This tells us that variation is a very This complicated and not at all a clear cut thing, it represents a "fluid continuum" rather "fluid than "discrete varieties" (p. 132). B/S then promise that they'll deal a bit B/S more with this in the next chapter.
5/19/2009 58 Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit Danke
Ch. 5 next. Ch. Keeping up with your summaries? Keeping Oh, and who’s taking the final and who’s Oh, writing a paper? If you wait too long to decide, you might have problems finding materials for your paper. 5/19/2009 59 Listen to some Berlinisch? Listen
See audio at 14:00 minute mark See (second audio file)—start a little earlier if time to hear about the genitive there.
I’ll play first without the text and let’s see what you understand. A little intro: a man is sitting and talking to himself, then to someone else—who? Then a man comes in his horse and buggy and… Nb: there is one archaic form in this Nb: audio excerpt. What is it? (from 19th c.) Tschüss! Tsch
5/19/2009 60 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2009 for the course GERMAN 170 taught by Professor Stevens,c during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.
- Spring '08