06413_05 - E e The irrational number dened as the limit as...

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E e The irrational number de Ü ned as the limit as n tends to in Ü nity of (1 + 1/ n ) n . It has the value 2.718 28…. It is used as the base of natural * logarithms and occurs in the * exponential function, e x . ear The sense organ in vertebrates that is specialized for the detection of sound and the maintenance of balance. It can be divided into the * outer ear and * middle ear, which collect and transmit sound waves, and the * inner ear, which con- tains the organs of balance and (except in Ü sh) hearing (see illustration). eardrum See tympanum . early universe The study of * cosmol- ogy at the time very soon after the * big bang. Theories of the early universe have led to a mutually bene Ü cial interaction between cosmology and the theory of * el- ementary particles, particularly * grand uni Ü ed theories. Because there were very high tempera- tures in the early universe many of the * broken symmetries in * gauge theories become unbroken symmetries. As the universe cools after the big bang there is thought to be a sequence of transitions to broken symmetry states. Combining cosmology with grand uni Ü ed theories helps to explain why the observed universe appears to consist of matter with no antimatter. This means that one has a nonzero * baryon number for the universe. This solution relies on the fact that there were nonequilibrium conditions in the early universe due to its rapid expansion after the big bang. An important idea in the theory of the early universe is that of in Û ation – the idea that the nature of the * vacuum state gave rise, after the big bang, to an expo- nential expansion of the universe. The hypothesis of the in Û ationary universe solves several long-standing problems in cosmology, such as the Û atness and homogeneity of the universe. Quantum Û uctuations during in Û ation have been suggested as a mechanism for the forma- pinna external auditory meatus round window middle ear semicircular canals ear ossicles malleus (hammer) stapes (stirrup) incus (anvil) tympanum (eardrum) outer ear inner ear utriculus perilymph ampulla auditory nerve sacculus oval window nerve fibre cochlea endolymph Eustachian tube Structure of the mammalian ear
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tion of large-scale structures. Evidence for this theory has been provided by * COBE and by * WMAP. ear ossicles Three small bones – the incus ( anvil ), malleus ( hammer ), and stapes ( stirrup ) – that lie in the mammalian * middle ear, forming a bridge between the tympanum (eardrum) and the * oval window. The function of the ossicles is to transmit (and amplify) vibrations of the tympanum across the middle ear to the oval window, which transfers them to the * inner ear. Muscles of the middle ear con- strict the movement of the ossicles. This serves to safeguard the ear from damage caused by excessively loud noise.
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06413_05 - E e The irrational number dened as the limit as...

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