06413_11 - K kainite A naturally occurring double salt of...

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K kainite A naturally occurring double salt of magnesium sulphate and potas- sium chloride, MgSO 4 .KCl.3H 2 O. Kainozoic See cenozoic . kalinite A mineral form of * aluminium potassium sulphate (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .K 2 SO 4 . 24H 2 O). kallidin See kinin . Kaluza–Klein theory A type of * uni Ü ed- Ü eld theory that postulates a generalization of the general theory of relativity to higher than four space–time dimensions. In Ü ve space–time dimen- sions this gives general relativity and electromagnetic interactions. In higher space–time dimensions Kaluza–Klein theories give general relativity and more general * gauge theories. A combination of Kaluza–Klein theory and * supersym- metry gives rise to * supergravity, which needs eleven space–time dimensions. In these theories it is proposed that the higher dimensions are ‘rolled up’ to be- come microscopically small (a process known as spontaneous compacti Ü cation ) with four macroscopic space–time dimen- sions remaining. It is named after Theo- dor Kaluza (1885–1954) and Oscar Klein (1894–1977). kame An isolated mound of rock parti- cles, originally formed at the lower end or side of a slow-moving glacier. The mound consists of layers of gravel and sand, which were transported by melt- water and left behind when the ice melted. See also esker . kaolin (china clay) A soft white clay that is composed chie Û y of the mineral kaolin- ite ( see clay minerals ). It is formed dur- ing the weathering and hydrothermal alteration of other clays or feldspar. Kaolin is mined in the UK, France, the Czech Republic, and USA. Besides its vital importance in the ceramics industry it is also used extensively as a Ü ller in the manufacture of rubber, paper, paint, and textiles and as a constituent of medicines. kaon A K-meson. See meson . karst A type of broken limestone ter- rain, characterized by Ü ssures (grikes) and depressions (dolines). A typical karst land- scape, lacking vegetation, resembles an area paved with large slabs of limestone. Rainwater percolates through the Ü ssures into the rock beneath, where it can fol- low bedding planes and form under- ground streams, which carve out caves. Surface streams may disappear down * sink holes. karyogamy The fusion of nuclei or nu- clear material that occurs during sexual reproduction. See fertilization . karyogram (idiogram) A diagram repre- senting the characteristic features of the * chromosomes of a species. karyokinesis The division of a cell nu- cleus. See meiosis ; mitosis . karyotype The number and structure of the * chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The karyotype is identical in all the * diploid cells of an organism. katal Symbol kat. A non-SI unit of en- zyme activity de Ü ned as the catalytic ac- tivity of an enzyme that increases the rate of conversion of a speci Ü ed chemical reaction by 1 mol s –1 under speci Ü ed assay conditions. Kater’s pendulum
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2009 for the course CIVIL ENG 12345 taught by Professor Xhfxfh during the Spring '09 term at Amirkabir University of Technology.

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06413_11 - K kainite A naturally occurring double salt of...

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