mt204 exam 2 - BLD204 Test 2 From the last study guide 8...

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BLD204 Test 2 From the last study guide: 8. List 4 effects that metabolites of arachidonic acid have on the inflammatory process. Upon completion of the unit on immunity the student should be able to: 1. Define antigen and antibody. Antigen – “non self” cell, usually a protein (best), > 40,000 MW, repetitive epitopes, multiple epitopes; epitope – the part of the component that is recognized Types of responses: Shared – Heterologous Endogenous – Autologous – these are the host’s own normal constituents which, normally, are recognized as “self”. They do not elicit an immune response, a state known as tolerance. Exogenous – Homologous – Known as iso-antigens and are the determinants that distinguish the tissue components of one individual from another. Their expression is genetically controlled. Antibody - in the operational sense they are molecules binding specifically to appropriate antigen (biologic effect, complement (c’) activation, opsinization, neutralization of bacterial toxins); from the chemical point of view, antibody activity of the plasma resides in the globulin fraction (immunoglobulins) 2. Differentiate between a humoral and cellular immune response based on cell type involved and rate of response to antigen challenge. Humoral – antibody production (B lymphocytes recognize antigen, present antigen to T-cells, T-cells drive B-cells to plasma, plasma cells produce antibodies) Cellular immune – production of immunoglobulins reacting specifically with the antigen (antibodies), proliferation of lymphocytes with a variety of other functions 3. List five different types of antibodies and state the cell type involved in their production. G – gamma, most abundant, readily diffuses, can cross the placenta, is not good at c’ activation, found in serum and tissues A – alpha – found in secretions, inhibits adherence of coated microorganisms to mucosal surfaces, it has two binding sites (dimer)
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M – mu – largest, has 10 binding sites (pentamer), first to be formed after immunization E – epsilon – found in mast cells, large amounts of E can cause allergies D – delta – found on the surface B lymphocytes, found in small amounts in the plasma 4. Describe the function of the macrophage as it relates to the development of an immune response. Phagocytosis of macrophage due to bacteria, kills off cells; presents Ag to lymphocytes; regulates its own activity 5. Compare and contrast the type of immune response (cellular or humoral), histologic lesion, rate of development and pathogenesis of the following hypersensitivity reactions: a. Type I (Anaphylactic) – Foreign antigen reacts with IgE bound to mast cells via the Fc portion. The bridging of the Fab portions of two adjacent IgE molecules by antigen initiates a complex series of reactions resulting in release of performed contents from the mast cell granules into the surrounding environment and synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites
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mt204 exam 2 - BLD204 Test 2 From the last study guide 8...

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