VIETNAM WAR The Vietnam War lasted from 1957 until 1975. Communist- ruled North Vietnam wanted to take over non-Communist South Vietnam and unite the north and south into a single nation. The United States feared that if one Southeast Asian country fell to the Communists, the other nations in the region would also fall. In the end, the United States and South Vietnamese forces were unable to stop the North Vietnamese take-over. Directions : Complete the sentences on these pages by filling in the spaces with the words, names, and terms in bold print. guerrilla warfare Ho Chi Minh Trail search and destroy Viet Cong Soviet Union Cambodia military forces communism Marines B-52 bombers helicopters North Vietnam advisers China the Philippines containment aid Background/Early Events (1) In the years after World War II ended in 1945, President Harry S. Truman declared that the United States must help any nation threatened by Communists. Truman ’ s policy –– called ____________________ –– was followed by Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson. (2) In the mid-1950s, Vietnam was a divided country. Ho Chi Minh was the leader of Communist North Vietnam. Ngo Dinh Diem, an opponent of ____________________, was the President of South Vietnam. (3) President Eisenhower sent several hundred U.S. ____________________ to help Diem. (4) Diem did little to improve the hard life of peasants in rural areas. In 1957, a rebellion broke out against his rule. The rebels were called the ____________________, or Vietnamese Communists. (5) North Vietnam supported the rebellion in South Vietnam and established a supply line to the Viet Cong through Laos and Cambodia. This system of roads and trails came to be known as the ____________________. (6) By 1961, the U.S.-backed Diem government was in danger of being overthrown by the rebels. President John F. Kennedy reacted by increasing the number of American military advisers in Vietnam from about 900 to about 16,000. He also expanded economic and military ____________________. (7) In 1963, a group of South Vietnamese generals overthrew the unpopular Diem government. A period of political disorder followed. ____________________ stepped up its supply of war materials and began to send units of its own army into the south. (8) In 1964, the United States accused North Vietnamese torpedo boats of attacking American ships off the coast of North Vietnam. Congress responded by passing the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, giving President Lyndon B. Johnson the power to increase U.S. ____________________ in the region. – 16A –
(9) A year later, President Johnson sent a group of U.S. ____________________ to South Vietnam. They were the first American ground combat forces to enter the war.
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