mt 204 ob 1 - BLD204 Mechanisms of Disease Objectives Upon...

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BLD204 Mechanisms of Disease Objectives Upon completion of the unit on cells and cell injury the student should be able: 1. Describe the composition of the cell membrane and state at least 3 physiologic functions. Composition – lipid bilayer, proteins, steroids (cholesterol), carbohydrates Functions - maintenance of normal osmotic relationships between the intracellular and extracellular environments, receptor and transduction functions, energy transport, osmotic and fluid homeostasis, signaling, allows certain items in while others out 2. Explain the function of each of the following cytoplasmic organelles: a. Mitochondria – produce ATP, regulate metabolism, electron transport chain b. Endoplasmic Reticulum – protein synthesis/folding, make sure they “look right” c. Ribosomes – translate RNA into protein d. Golgi complex – modify, sort, package proteins and ship them to where they are needed e. Lysosomes – digestion of macromolecules f. Peroxisomes – oxidation, helps metabolize fatty acids g. Microtubles and microfilaments – helps maintain cell structure 3. Define lysosome, phagolysosome and autolysosome. Lysosome – storage diseases (single gene defects), disruption (internal ick), secretion of enzymes; contains digestive enzymes Phagolysosome – membrane enclosed organelle when a lysosome fuses with a phagosome; is common in immunological functions of macrophages Autolysosome – element of the lysosome system to which hydrolases had been added to fusion of lysosomes 4. Define etiology and pathogenesis and be able to use these definitions to differentiate between the inciting agent of the disease and the response of the organism. Etiology – cause; study of why things occur (causation), or even the reasons behind the way that things act; infecting agent of the disease Pathogenesis – NOT etiology; sequence of events, helps with prevention and treatment; response of the organism 5. List seven common types of cell-damaging factors responsible for cell injury and death and give an example of each. Hypoxia (low oxygen)/ Anoxia (no oxygen) – most often because of ischemia and not enough oxygen metabolism Reoxygenation – generates free O2 radicals Temperature extremes – heat or cold Chemical agents – damaging in many ways
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Immunity – operates through either the humoral or cellular arms of the immune system Infectious agent (pathogen) – bacteria (toxin release), viruses (kill cells directly) Irradiation - high levels of radiation Nutritional deficiencies – lack of vitamins/insufficient food 6. Define the terms ischemia, infarction, iatrogenic and hypoxia. Ischemia – pathophysiological state in which the blood supply of an organ or tissue is reduced below its metabolic needs; reduction in the perfusion of a part relative to its needs Infarction – an area of tissue necrosis caused by interruption of the blood supply to the affected region; caused by a loss of blood Hypoxia – decreased O2 7. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of cellular injury due to hypoxia and
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course MT / BLD 204 taught by Professor Johngerlack during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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mt 204 ob 1 - BLD204 Mechanisms of Disease Objectives Upon...

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