draft_midterm_exam

draft_midterm_exam - 1 University of North Carolina Spring...

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1 University of North Carolina Spring 2009 History 128, Section 007 Midterm Exam IDS Answer two (2) of the following. Each Id is worth 25% of your exam grade . War Industries Board The rise and expansion of the state The development of a mature consumer society in the United States Why did Wilson's policies during his second term appear to be closer to those advocated by T. Roosevelt than those that Wilson had espoused in 1912? The War Industries Board was an organization established on July 28, 1917, put in place under the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, which oversaw production of all wartime materials during World War One. Led by Frank A. Scott but then by Baruch, it took control of the market, persuaded and coerced businesses to make military goods over consumer goods. For example, it ordered the redesign of bicycles in order to save steal. It coordinated the purchase of war supplies and encouraged companies to use mass production techniques to increase efficiency and urged waste elimination by standardizing products. It set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It dealt with labor-management disputes by increasing wages to prevent a shortage of supplies during war. Under this organization, industrial production increased 20 percent. This organization, although under the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, did not follow the principles of his New Freedom, which called for limited government control. Because of World War One, the New Freedom idea was transformed as necessary for war, and looked more like Roosevelt’s New Nationalism. The War Industries Board gave the administration a centralized method to manage the economy under unprecedented conditions. As a result, the War Industries board and its positive impact on the economy ratified the belief of business and government collaboration, a centralized power and federal regulation. Even after WWI, people would now look to the state for direction, evolving the American state as a centralized power. This control of economy, in addition to mass production, also helped develop the United States into a consumer society. The policies of the War Industries Board provided a template for the New Deal and mobilization for World War II.
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The Great Uprising of 1877 The rise and expansion of the state The development of a mature consumer society in the United States What were some of the responses of Americans to the economic consolidation of the era? The issue of labor, strife and capital in the workplace emerged in the United States during the late 19 th century in response to the 1873 depression. The Great Uprising of 1877 was the first of the persistent violent struggles as well as the first truly national strike. On July 16, 1877, Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) workers in Martinsburg, West Virginia staged a strike in response to employers cutting wages by 10 percent. President Hayes sent federal troops to West Virginia as reinforcements to the state militia in order to protect B&O. This was the first time that the government had put the federal government on the side of business, inciting anger across the country. Railroad workers
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