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14model 10/6/2009 8:15 12/2/2002 Chapter 14. Model for evaluating dividend policy The return on a stock consists of two elements, dividends and capital gains. In rate of return terms, the total return consists of a dividend yield plus a capital gains yield, the g term in the following equation: = This equation can be transformed into the constant growth stock valuation model: = tends to increase the stock price. However, raising the dividend will lower the amount of earnings available for reinvestment, and thus it will lower the growth rate, which will tend to lower the stock price. (Under certain conditions, g = (1-payout)(ROE). If the payout were increased to 100%, or 1.0, then g would drop to zero.) Thus, increasing the dividend payout has two opposing effects on a firm's stock price. Management must then seek to find the payout policy that balances these two forces and thereby maximizes the stock price. DIVIDEND THEORIES M-M Dividend Irrelevance Theory Proposed by Merton Miller and Franco Modigliani, this theory argues that dividend policy has no effect on either the price of a firm's stock or its cost of capital. Firm value, they contended, is determined by basic earning power and business risk. Therefore, a firm's value is based only on fundamental factors, and dividend Bird-In-The-Hand Theory Others, including Myron Gordon, who developed the DCF stock valuation model, disagreed. They argued that investors regard capital gains as being riskier than dividends, hence that a dollar of dividends contributes more to stock price than a dollar of retained earnings. According to this theory, the cost of capital would decrease, and the stock price would increase, as dividend payout is increased. Tax Preference Theory Still others argue that tax factors cause investors to prefer capital gains to dividends, hence to prefer a low dividend payout. First, long-term capital gains are taxed at a lower rate than dividends. In addition, capital gains are not taxed until the gain is realized. Due to the time value of money, taxes paid in the future will have a lower effective cost than those paid today. Finally, if a stock is held until death, no capital gains tax is due at all. Because of these tax advantages, investors should prefer a low payout. Thus, as dividend payout increases, the cost of capital for the firm would increase and the stock price would decrease. The Theories Conflict
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2009 for the course MBA 4500 taught by Professor Eyupcetin during the Spring '09 term at Istanbul Technical University.

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