genome - Genome Stuffs 1/3 of our proteins are EXACTLY the...

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Genome Stuffs 1/3 of our proteins are EXACTLY the same as a chimp, 1/3 has one amino acid change, and 1/3 has 2 or more differences – remember that just because the proteins are the same, that doesn’t always mean that the genes are the same. Just because the genes aren’t the same doesn’t mean that they have an effect on its expression. Adaptation: lactase (77% adult northern Europeans, 14% African Americas, 0% Asian) – an expression of a change in gene regulation We are 99.9% alike, and individuals of the same “race” are more different than when one “race” as a whole is compared to another. Haplotypes – smaller in Africa, very diverse, oldest population so LD blocks are shortest Rick Kittles and AIMs (Ancestry Informative Markers – essentially LD blocks) At any given time, only 5% AT MOST of the genome is under selective pressure, so the rest evolves neutrally. Determine which parts are active with comparative genomics. Use UCEs (Ultra-Conserved Elements) to tell what genes can’t be messed with (i.e. the ones that are the same across chickens, frogs, foxes, and humans).\ Negative selection favors conservation, positive selection favors difference (selecting the best mutation) We’ve picked up a lot of junk along the way – 1.9% of our genome is genes, whereas a fish is 11%, but same number of transcribed regions. We don’t really have extra special genes that no one else has Allen Wilson and Mary Claire King – changes that would cause major phenotypic differences
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genome - Genome Stuffs 1/3 of our proteins are EXACTLY the...

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