Primate Sexuality Midterm 1

Primate Sexuality Midterm 1 - Primate Sexuality Midterm#1...

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Primate Sexuality Midterm #1 I. Know what makes a primate a primate –  IMPT for this exam a. Generalized i. Long dependency/longer gestation 1. intelligence, skull expansion, increased complexity of brain ii. Supination/brachiation 1. clavicles linking arms to chest (hanging) iii. Forward facing eyes   at expense of snout and vomeronasal 1. less reliance on scent b/c of latter 2. stereoscopic 3D vision for judging distance b/c of former iv. Generalized dental structure   generalized diet v. Generally unspecialized post cranial skeleton vi. Nails (on hallux on all primates) vii. Trichromatic color vision 1. only eutherians w/ this, for daytime activity viii. Post-orbital bar ix. Grasping hands 1. pentadactyly 2. naked padded digits and palms x. social complexity 1. male residency 2. individualized society  3. social communication   greater reliance on vocal means on  communication b. Specifics  i. Post-orbital closure (haplorrhines) ii. Ischial callosities (OWM [catterhynes?] ) iii. Sexual dichromatism iv. Long, flexible backbone, short flexible neck (arboreal)  II. Vocab a. Inclusive fitness  – juveniles help out their own kin/genes and gain experience  even though they postpone their own breeding III. Cause/Effect a. Color vision   use of color in body language (warning/sexual characteristics) IV. Classification a. Strepsirrhines i. Lemuriformes ii. Lorisiformes
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Tarsiiformes b. Haplorrhines i. Ceboidea/Platyrrhines – New World Monkeys 1. Cebidae (monkeys) 2. Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins) ii. Catarrhines – Old World Monkeys 1. Cercopithecoidea – baboons, macaques, monkeys 2. Hominoidea – gibbons, orangutans, gorilla, chimps, bonobos, man PRIMITIVE vs DERIVED/DEVELOPED TRAITS Primitive - cranium o long and low - rhinarium o long and wet o whiskers - ears o large, mobile - eyes o more to side (still forward and stereoscopic) o vision: tapetum lucidum (eyes shine) adapted for nocturnal vision: rods > cones - dentition o 2-1-3-3 NWM have this - grooming o toilet claw o tooth comb not in aye-ayes and Indriis  - lips o split upper lip fused to gum leads to vomeronasal organ   well developed olfactory apparatus - scent glands o prominent – anogenital, head, wrist, shoulder, palmar, saliva, etc.. lemur – antibrachial spur + brachial gland (click) - nipple sets o multiple: implies twins or litters - sexual monomorphism o sexes similar but dichromatic  Developed - cranium o larger brain relative to body size, round - rhinarium o no whiskers o short and dry platyrrhine – broad, lateral catarrhine – narrow, downward
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- ears o small, immobile - eyes o more to front, closer together o vision: fovea adapted for diurnal color vision; fovea – critical for detail
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