Ebola notes 2007

Ebola notes 2007 - The image on the website is an electron...

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The image on the website is an electron microscope image of the ebola virus in infected skill cells from an individual who died during the Kikwit epidemic examined in the movie. “PPT” refers to a corresponding powerpoint image for the notes. Ebola part of group of viruses known as filoviruses “Thread viruses” PPT EM RNA viruses Not retroviruses! Have special polymerase for copying RNA genome into mRNA unlike HIV Virus appears very stable evolutionarily, particularly for RNA virus -Isolated strains 20 years apart and only 1.6% genetic change For HIV mother to child transmission get changes 5-8% Mutation rate 100 fold less than HIV very mysterious virus , for 30 years been looking for the natural reservoir since rapidly kills non-human primates they are unlikely to be the reservoir more devastating effect on other primates 2/3 lowland gorillas died of ebola in last few years is expected to cause extinction of gorillas, along with habitat loss for 20 years can only find traces of ebola in wild already dead animals two years ago found some bats that seem to carry Ebola in the wild PPT clues to finding the reservoir How look for reservoir?
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1) Collect samples, look for signs of virus, ELISA the quickets if neeed by try PCR No positives despite thousands of animals tested 2) Take animal, infect with ebola, see if virus reproduces, animal lives Only bats supported replication, high titer and no disease Makes candidate for host PCR found virus fragments in some small rodents, but only a low number of individuals Most likely a creature that lives in deep forest. Sporadic outbreaks suggest: rarely encounters humans, or very low number infected, or not very transmissable to humans PPT geographic location of Ebola outbreaks PPT bats as potential reservoirs please read the paper this image is from these species test positive for Ebola by either ELISA or PCR In all cases once enters humans Spreads by contact with bodily fluids Ebola found in all fluids ever examined Critical amplification events occur in hospitals or family care Disease that exploits human social interaction! stroking a loved one’s forehead can transmit the disease PPT chain of transmission OV Outbreak dates Marburg the original, 31 people Imported monkeys from Uganda used for research Yambuku , 318 people died patient entered Belgian catholic mission hospital with fever, diarrhea and nosebleed Received injection of vitamins, left, never seen again Hospital had only three needles and no way of sterilizing
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All subsequent patients infected No barrier nursing, so all hospital staff infected Sisters eventually self imposed quarantine outbreak stopped when all nurses died Kikwit , 317 people unknown origin of entry But well documented amplification and dissemination Gaspard Menga entered Kikwit hospital Others infected in hospital
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2009 for the course BIO 46 taught by Professor Broverman during the Fall '07 term at Duke.

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Ebola notes 2007 - The image on the website is an electron...

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