Nuclear Chem

Nuclear Chem - Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chem Slide 1...

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1 Nuclear Chem Slide 1 Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chem Slide 2 Introduction to Nuclear Chem Nuclei can change: what happens when they do? In Review : 1. All atoms have isotopes (nuclides) 2. All naturally occurring elements are mixtures of two or more nuclides 3. Different isotopes of a given element have identical chemical properties but undergo different nuclear reactions 4. Nuclei consist of nucleons (protons and neutrons) packed very close to one another…how? 5. Not all nuclides are stable; in fact, some are extremely unstable (radioactive) and will decay to give more stable species.
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2 Nuclear Chem Slide 3 Historical Aspects 1896: Becquerel & Curie study uranium compounds; notice they cause photographic film to fog; radiation is energy coming the compounds; coin term ‘radioactive’ Radiation determined to be compound insensitive, as long as it was a uranium compound: U 3 O 8 , UO 2 , UF 6 Radioactivity : high energy radiation emitted by nuclei Rutherford: Identified three types of radiation being emitted from uranium sources using an electric field on the emissions: Nuclear Chem Slide 4 Radiation Types α -Radiation : positively charged (particles); identified as He 2+ β -Radiation : negatively charged (particles); fast, light; identified as electrons; emitted from the nucleus γ -Radiation : no mass or charge; higher ν than light; very short λ ( 1 pm); high E photons; E = h 44 22 He or or α 0 –1 11 0 01 1 eor np e β + ⎯⎯→
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3 Nuclear Chem Slide 5 Combustion of 1 g of CH 4 : 50 kJ Decay of 1 g of U-238: 8 x 10 7 kJ Heavy elements tend to undergo alpha decay Lighter elements tend to undergo beta decay All processes occur with gamma emission (nuclear restabilization) Nuclear Chem Slide 6 Nuclear Decay and Nuclear Equations Nuclear decay : process of partial break-up of nucleus – Parent Daughter nuclei – Nuclear transmutation if daughter is different element – Chemical form not usually (if ever) shown 238 U could mean EITHER 238 UO 2 or 238 UF 6 – Ionic charges not shown Nuclear Equations : used to express reactions 238 234 4 92 90 2 UT h H e Must add up Must add up ⎯⎯ →+ ±²²²²²²²²²²²²²³ ´²²²²²²²²²²²²²µ
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4 Nuclear Chem Slide 7 Types of Nuclear Decay-1 α -Decay : Loss of from a nucleus; occurs primarily for unstable nuclei with Z > 83; good way to lose mass fast β -Decay : ejection of an electron from a nucleus; comes from a neutron to form a proton; nuclide mass ( A ) stays the same but atomic number ( Z ) increases by 1
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Nuclear Chem - Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chem Slide 1...

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