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Unformatted text preview: Archimedes Principle 7.2 Fluids Buoyancy Fluid dynamics I. Principles When an object is placed in a fluid the fluid exerts a buoyant force on the object that tends to oppose the gravitational force. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced F B F g Pressure force on fluid at equilibrium The force of pressure on the surface of the fluid section (in dotted lines) F is equal to the p weight of the fluid F g F =F =Weight of fluid P g net force is zero Buoyant force on an object in a fluid Now remove the fluid and place an object in the space of the displaced fluid. The net force on the object is the difference between F and p the weight F g Here the object floats because Fp is greater than the weight The buoyant force is F p the weight of the displaced fluid Question An ice cube floats in a glass of water. What fraction of the ice cube is 3 3 under the surface of the water? (rice =0.92 kg/m , rwater =1.00 kg/m Question A glass of water containing an ice cube is full to the brim. What will happen to the water level when the ice melts? a) rise b) lower c) remain the same 1 Buoyant force Archimedes was asked to determine if the King’s crown was made of pure gold. Buoyant force Archimedes was asked to determine if the King’s crown was made of pure gold. He used a test of weighing the crown in air and submerged in water. The weight in air was 25.0 N. What would the weight in 3 3 water be if the crown was pure gold (rgold =19.3g/cm , rwater =1.00g/cm )? 3 What would it be if it were made of a silver alloy (ρ =17.1 g/cm )? What is alloy the best way to perform the measurement accurately? F B Archimedes of Syracuse 287 BC212 BC “Eureka, I have found it” The density of the crown can be determined by weighing the crown in air and in water. F B F g F g Question A spherical rubber balloon with mass 1.6 g and diameter of 3 20 cm is filled with helium (density 0.18 kg/m ). How many 0.4 g paper clips can you hang from the balloon 3 before it loses its buoyancy? (density of air is 1.2 kg/m ) Fluid Dynamics • Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. • The fluid is characterized by the velocity, and pressure in different parts of the fluid. • Fluid dynamics has important applications such as aerodynamics of flight. Fluid Dynamics Fluid flow is described by velocity vectors or continuous streamlines Steady flow • For steady flow the streamlines don’t change with time • For unsteady flow the streamlines change with time. Velocity vectors Streamlines 2 Continuity Equation Conservation of mass in a flow tube In a time Dt the same amount of mass must pass into the tube (at A ) 1 as leaves the tube (at A ) 2 m = r1A1v1 Dt
m = r2 A 2 v 2 Dt Question A 1.0 inch hose is constricted by a nozzle to a diameter 4 times smaller. By how much is the velocity of the water increased at the nozzle. a) 1.5 times b) 2 times c) 4 times d) 16 times. For a constant density, i.e. liquid A1v1 = A 2 v 2 For a smaller area the flow velocity must be larger Bernoulli’s Equation Conservation of Energy in a flow tube Bernoulli’s Equation A tank of water with height h has a small hole at the bottom. Find the velocity of the water flowing from the hole. Assume streamline flow use the Bernoulli equation at two regions of the fluid 1 2 1 P1 + rv 1 + rgy1 = P2 + rv 2 + rgy 2 2 2 2 ΔV ΔV v 1 A 1 The change in Energy of fluid volume ΔV in going from 1 to 2 is equal to the Work done on the mass
1 2 DE=DKE+DPE = m(v 2 - v 1 ) + mg(y 2 - y 1 ) 2 2 A 2 v 2 W=F Dx –F Dx = P A Dx –P A Dx =P ΔVP ΔV 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 P1 + 1 2 1 rv 1 + rgy1 = P2 + r v 2 + rgy 2 2 2 2
P+ 1 2 rv + rgy = Cons tan t 2 A >>A v =0 1 2 1 set y =0, y =h 2 1 P = P = 1 atm 1 2 rgh = 1 2 rv 2 2 v 2 = 2gh 3 ...
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