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Unformatted text preview: An Introduction to Diversity Dimensions of Diversity Subtitle: I’ve a Feeling We’re Not Subtitle: in Kansas Anymore in Dr. Denise T. Ogden, PSU
1 -1 EEO, AA, Diversity, Leveraging Diversity They’re Not All The Same!
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws that prevent discrimination race religion ect Affirmative Action (AA) underpresented groups might be fav Diversity acknowledging differences Valuing And Leveraging Diversity Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5 -2 Progress 21st Century
Global Diversity 1990s
Work Force Diversity 1980s
Affirmative Action 1960 – 1970s Equal Employment Equal Opportunity Opportunity
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5 -3 Primary: cannot change; and Secondary Dimensions of Diversity:people have power to change/ or conceal Work Work Background Religion Background Age Age Income Military Military Experience Experience
Gender Gender Race Race Sexual Orientation Sexual Physical Qualities Ethnicity Marital Marital Status Status Geographic Geographic Location Location Parental Parental Status Status Dr. Ogden PSU-LV Loden and Rosener, Loden Workforce America, 1991 Workforce 5 -4 What Do People Notice When Encountering Another Person? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skin color Gender Age Appearance Facial Expression Eye contact Movement Personal Space Touch
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5 -5 Inclusive Organizations
• Colleagues and leaders recognize and utilize differences • Differences are engaged and used to enhance effectiveness • People’s differences are seen as valuable assets • Conflicts are supported and valued as learning opportunities • People are encouraged to apply their unique strengths and skills • Colleagues and leaders possess skills Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5 -6 Diversity Quiz • Between 2000 and 2010, there will be a ____% increase in the number of people ages 65-74 in the workforce. – A. 22% – B. 33% – C. 44% Of working people in the U.S., what percent are known to have a disability? – A. 8% – B. 13% – C. 17%
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV • 5 -7 Diversity Quiz • According to the U.S. 2000 census, what percentage of the population was white?
– A. 65% – B. 78% – C. 70% • In 2007 what percentage of the population was white?
– A. 71% – B. 66% – C. 63%
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5 -8 Diversity Quiz • What percentage of the population is overweight or obese?
– A. 30% – B. 45% – C. 65% – What percentage of the population is gay, lesbian or bisexual? – A. 2% – B. 5% – C. 7% Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5 -9 Diversity Quiz • In 2005, how many people in the United States were foreign-born?
– A. 19 million – B. 31 million – C. 34 million • As of the 2000 census what percentage of African Americans were there living in Reading, PA?
– A. 37% – B. 25% – C. 12%
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-10 Diversity Quiz
• In 2007, what percent of students throughout PSU were minority?
– A. 13% – B. 18% – C. 21% • In 2005, what percent of students throughout PSU were Hispanic?
– A. 3% – B. 5% – C. 11% Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-11 Projected Growth of Selected U.S. Subcultures Source: U. S. Census Bureau, Population Projection Program Source: Dr. Ogden PSU-LV
5-12 Race in the U.S. Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-13 Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-14 Summary Trends • Decreasing % of White people • Increasing % of people of color • Increase in women and older workers • Decreasing birth rates • 1965 – average worker Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-15 Acculturation • The cultural modification of a group by adapting to, or borrowing traits from, another culture (Padilla 1980). Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-16 Historical Perspective • From Americanization to maintenance of cultural identities
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-17 Acculturation and Assimilation
Acculturation Process Acculturation Unacculturated Assimilation Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-18 Business Case for Diversity Three Major Areas Community and Community Societal Issues Societal Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-19 Marketplace Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-20 Workforce Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-21 Community and Societal Issues Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-22 Organization in Transformation
•Survival •High Performance •Being Competitive •Sustainable Results Drivers Outcomes
•Preferred Employers •Business Partner of Choice •High Performing Work Culture
New Contracts Loyalty Multiple Generations Customers Competition Suppliers Regulators Marketplace Workplace Workplace Community Community
Public Image Corporate Responsibility Infrastructure Needs Stock of Choice Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-23 The Path from Monocultural Club to The
S T A T U S Q U O
Exclusive Exclusive Club Club Passive Passive Club Club Symbolic Symbolic Difference Difference (“Pioneers”) Critical Critical Mass Mass Acceptance Inclusive Inclusive Organization Organization Inclusive Organization Inclusive
Tolerance of Differences Value the Value dominance of one culture, style, group culture, Transition Transition Stages Stages C H Value added of Value diverse cultures, styles, groups styles, A N G E Dr. Ogden PSU-LV Source: J.H. Katz and F.A. Miller (1986) "Developing Diversity ": 5-24 Exclusive Club Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-25 Passive Club Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-26 Symbolic Differences Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-27 Critical Mass Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-28 Acceptance Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-29 Inclusive Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-30 Where is PSU on the Path? • In what stage is Penn State University on the path to inclusiveness? Why? • Is this different for various groups within the organization? Explain. Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-31 Your Role • • • • • • • Catalyst Facilitate and Change Agent Spokesperson Communicator Champion Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-32 If the World Were a Village of 100 People
– 52 would be Asians – 12 would be Africans – 10 would be Western Europeans – 9 would be Latin Americans – 5 would be North Americans • Language – 14 people would speak Mandarin – 5 people would speak English – 5 people would speak Spanish – 3 people would speak Hindi – 4 people would speak Russian – 4 people would speak Arabic – – – – – 33 would be Christians 20 would be Muslims 17 would have no religion 14 would be Hindus 6 would be Buddhists • Education/Income
– 9 women would be illiterate (5 men) – 1 would have a college education – Per capita income = $7,011 • Religion • Health
– 14 would be malnourished – 17 would not have clean drinking water – 6 HIV infected • Technology
– 13 would have a computer – 51 would have a phone – 14 would own a car
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-33 Words to Live By • Not wrong, just different Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-34 The Future • We have to learn to communicate with different people • We must become diverse to survive • U.S. pop. 300 million • World pop 6.5 billion Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-35 Valuing diversity
• Valuing diversity and managing diversity are different Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-36 Barriers to Accepting Diversity
• • • • • • • Prejudice Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Blaming the victim Discrimination Harrassment Backlash Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-37 How to Gain Awareness
• Reduce your prejudices and use of stereotypes • Minimize miscommunication with diverse others • Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-38 Reducing Your Prejudices
• Recognize that diversity exists • • • Dispel myths about diverse others when you are in a group Admit to your own biases and prejudices Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-39 Minimizing Miscommunication
• Educate yourself about differences • Practice effective communication skills • • Avoid adjectives that spotlight certain groups • Be aware of the connotation of words Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-40 Building Relationships
• Seek opportunities to interact with a wide variety of peers and associates • • Seek feedback from diverse others • Encourage your peers to be candid •
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-41 Diversity Paradox • We are like…
– All other people – Some other people – No other person Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-42 Irritations • Examine where irritation comes from
– A sense of superiority? – – Anxiety over being excluded? – • Leads to Us vs. Them Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-43 Social Identity Groups (SIGs) Ethnicity Religion Race Physical Physical Ability Ability Mental Mental Ability Ability ?
Marital Marital Status Status Gender Age
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-44 • • • • • • • • • • Power and Conflict in Social Identity Groups Have dominant and subordinate groups Dominant groups - Get to define the rules - Have more power/ resources -tend not to think of themselves as a group - are blind to oppression - have less knowledge of “ the system” Creates one-up / one-down system Less dominate members- are very aware of their group Tend to understand dominantes better than the reverse
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-45 Up/Down System
One Up • Blind to groupness • Unaware of privilege • Internalize dominance • See as indiv acts • Create Systems • Stay in line (collusion) • Progress One Down • Aware of groupness • Internal oppression • See Patterns • Use standards of one up to evaluate group • Long way to go Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-46 Collusion • Collusion- cooperation with others to reinforce stereotypical attitudes behavior or norms • Types
– Silence – Denial – Active Participation Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-47 Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication (Barnay, 1985) • • • • • Assumed Similarity Languge Nonverbal Communication Preconceptions and Stereotypes Evaluation of Culture As Inferior to Own- ethnocentrism • High Anxiety
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-48 What is Culture Hofstede- collective progaming Hofstedeof the mind of Subculture- segment Institutional, Team, individual Culture as an iceberg (only see 10%) Intercultural communication: when a message producer is member of one culture and the receiver is another
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-49 Differences • • • • • • • • • General appearance and dress Body movement Posture Gesture Facial expressions Eye contact and gaze Touch Smell Paralanguage- rate volume, pitch that coveys meaning or emotion
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-50 Dress and Appearance • Before reacting to another’s appearance • Consider the meaning attached to appearance • Body scent is not necessarily a sign of lack of cleanliness • Cultural Norms • Body scent is not necessarily a sign of lack of cleanliness
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-51 Time and Consciousness • Differences in time consciousness can be cultural • Explain the reasons for deadlines and schedules • Some cultures show less concern for timeliness
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-52 • • • • • • Posture Bowing Slouching- rude in most N European countries Hands in pocket -Turkey Sitting with legs crossed - offensive in Ghana, Turkey) Showing soles of feet. -offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia. Us -gender differences in posture Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-53 Facial Expressions • Many Asian cultures suppress facial expression • Many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or sadness • Some see animated expressions as lack of control • Women smile more than men Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-54 Eye Contact and Gaze • Western cultures — see direct eye to eye contact as positive • Arabic cultures make prolonged eye contact • Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-55 Touch
• USA – Handshake is common (even for strangers) – Hugs, kisses for those of opposite gender or for family • Islamic and Hindu – Typically don’t touch with the left hand – Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching between genders • Asians do not touch the head Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-56 Improving Nonverbal Communication
• • • • • Avoid giving conflicting signals Smile genuinely Be aware of gestures/ posture Use touch only when appropriate Be aware that people may give conflicting nonverbal cues Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-57 Giving and Receiving Feedback • Types of Feedback
– Supportive- behavior repetition – Corrective- behavior change – Abusive - contempt – Insignificant- minimum or no response
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-58 Video • Do I acknowledge and respect differences? • Open discussion? • Am I communicating openly & clearly? • Are my words or actions being misinterpreted? • Are my assumptions creating barriers?
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-59 New Opportunity • Two options in the face of change
1. Resist and struggle to maintain structure as it is 2. Embrace the change, and profit it from it through personal growth Dr. Ogden PSU-LV 5-60 Cultural and Communication Competence
• Cultural competence is a set of behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in an organization and enable people to work effectively in cross-cultural situations (Cross, et al. 1989; Isaacs and Benjamin, 1991) Elements
1. Valuing diversity 2. Lever diversity 3. Being conscious of the dynamics inherent when cultures interact 4. Appreciation and Respect 5. Having developed adaptations which reflect an understanding of cultural diversity
Dr. Ogden PSU-LV • 5-61 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/01/2009 for the course SCM 301 taught by Professor Gardner,williams during the Fall '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
- Fall '08