Nathaniel G. Chapman, J. Slade Lellock, Cameron D. Lippard - Untapped_ Exploring the Cultural Dimens

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Unformatted text preview: Untapped Unta ppe d Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of Craft Beer Edited by Nathaniel G. Chapman, J. Slade Lellock, and Cameron D. Lippard west Â�virginia university press morgantown 2017 Copyright 2017 West Â�Virginia University Press All rights reserved First edition published 2017 by West Â�Virginia University Press Printed in the United States of AmerÂ�iÂ�ca ISBN: cloth 978-1-943665-67-9 pb 978-1-943665-68-6 epub 978-1-943665-69-3 pdf 978-1-943665-70-9 Library of Congress Cataloging-Â�in-Â�Publication Data is available from the Library of Congress Cover design by Than Saffel Cover image Than Saffel conten ts List of PhotoÂ�graphs, Maps, Â�Tables, and Figuresâ•…â•… vii Forewordâ•…â•…ix Ian Malcolm Taplin Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of Craft Beer: Introduction and Overviewâ•…â•… 1 Nathaniel G. Chapman, J. Slade Lellock, and Cameron D. Lippard PART I: Global PoÂ�litiÂ�cal Economyâ•…â•… 17 1. Storytelling and Market Formation: An Exploration of Craft Brewers in the United Kingdomâ•…â•… 19 Jennifer Smith Maguire, Jessica Bain, Andrea Davies, and Maria Touri 2. A Pint of Success: How Beer Is Revitalizing Cities and Local Economies in the United Kingdomâ•…â•… 39 Ignazio Cabras 3. The Rationalization of Craft Beer from Medieval Monks to Modern Microbrewers: A Weberian AnalyÂ�sisâ•…â•… 59 Michael A. Elliott 4. Entrepreneurial Leisure and the Microbrew Revolution: The Neoliberal Origins of the Craft Beer Movementâ•…â•… 80 J. Nikol Beckham PART II: Space and Placeâ•…â•… 103 5. Crafting Place: Craft Beer and Authenticity in Jacksonville, Floridaâ•…â•… 105 Krista E. Paulsen and Hayley E. Tuller 6. Ethical Brews: New Â�England, Networked Ecologies, and a New Craft Beer Movementâ•…â•… 124 Ellis Jones and Daina Cheyenne Harvey 7. Atmosphere and Activism at the Â�Great British Beer Festivalâ•…â•… 137 Thomas Thurnell-Â�Read Untapped 8. Neighborhood Change, One Pint at a Time: The Impact of Local Characteristics on Craft Breweriesâ•…â•… 155 Jesus M. Barajas, Geoff Boeing, and Julie Wartell 9. The Spatial Dynamics of OrgaÂ�nizational Identity among Craft Brewersâ•…â•…177 Tünde Cserpes and Paul-Â�Brian McInerney PART III: Intersecting Identitiesâ•…â•… 201 10. The Cultural Tensions between Taste Refinement and American Middle-Â� Class Masculinityâ•…â•…203 Andre F. Maciel 11. You Are What You Drink: Gender SteÂ�reoÂ�types and Craft Beer Preferences within the Craft Beer Scene of New York Cityâ•…â•… 222 Helana Darwin 12. Brewing BoundÂ�aries of White Middle-Â�Class Maleness: Reflections from within the Craft Beer Industryâ•…â•… 236 Erik T. Withers Glossaryâ•…â•…261 List of Contributorsâ•…â•… 269 Indexâ•…â•…275 vi photoÂ�g r a ph s , m a p s , Â�t able s, a nd fig ures Â�Table i.1╇ Craft Beer Sales and Production Statistics by State, 2015â•…â•… 3 Â�Table 1.1╇ Breweries and Participants in Our Studyâ•…â•… 26 Figure 2.1╇ Number of U.K. Breweries, 1980–2015â•…â•… 41 Figure 2.2╇ Employment in Surveyed Breweriesâ•…â•… 45 Figure 3.1╇ Beer Flavor Wheelâ•…â•… 69 Figure 3.2╇ The Plan of St. Gallâ•…â•… 72 Figure 3.3╇ Cross Section of Brewing Complexes in the Plan of St. Gallâ•…â•… 73 Figure 3.4╇ Monks’ Brewery and Bakery Complexâ•…â•… 74 Figure 5.1╇ King Street, with Craft Beer Establishmentsâ•…â•… 112 Â�Table 5.1╇ King Street Brewery District Timelineâ•…â•… 113 Figure 8.1╇ Geographic Distribution of Breweries by Regionâ•…â•… 163 Figure 8.2╇ Craft Brewery Locations by Stateâ•…â•… 164 Â�Table 8.1╇ Mean Values per Census Tractâ•…â•… 165 Â� able 8.2╇ Logistic Regression Models of Neighborhood Change Impacts T on Breweriesâ•…â•…166 Â�Table 9.1╇ Rotated Â�Factor Loadings and Unique Variancesâ•…â•… 183 Â�Table 9.2╇ Variables Used in Latent Class AnalyÂ�sisâ•…â•… 184 Map 9.1╇ Point-Â�Density AnalyÂ�sis Resultsâ•…â•… 186 Map 9.2╇ Kernel Density AnalyÂ�sis Resultsâ•…â•… 187 Â�Table 9.3╇ Fit of Latent Class Modelsâ•…â•… 188 Â�Table 9.4╇ Latent Class AnalyÂ�sis of U.S. Microbreweriesâ•…â•… 189 Â�Table 9.5╇ Brewery Exemplars for the Three Latent Classesâ•…â•… 191 Â� able 9.6╇ Distribution of Breweries in the Three Latent Classes T by Membership Typeâ•…â•… 191 Â�Table 10.1╇ Craft Beer Aficionados Interviewedâ•…â•… 206 Figure 10.1╇ Oliver’s Effortful PerÂ�forÂ�mance to Mill Grains for His Homebrewingâ•…209 vii foreword Ian Malcolm Taplin The ubiquity of beer is Â�really quite amazing, and I’m not talking about just the recent growth of craft brewers that is the subject of this book, but also about the fact that historically it has been a beverage of choice by many socieÂ�ties. Â�Humans, it seems, have spent an inordinate amount of time exploring the mysteries of fermentation. Realizing at an early date that Â�those crops in the fields could be put to a use other than satisfying hunger, human Â� experimentation resulted in a liquid product that proved less nutritious but in many reÂ�spects far more enjoyable. The resilience shown by Â�humans in their attempts to transform vegetables, fruits, and crops into alcohol is truly remarkable, even if one discounts probÂ� lems with potable Â�water that plagued most socieÂ�ties prior to the twentieth Â�century. Prodigious amounts of alcohol Â�were made and consumed in the United States in the nineteenth century—Â� Â� a testament to ingenuity and perhaps a perÂ� sisÂ�tent need to dull the senses after Â� a day of hard physical Â�labor. Germany’s ancient beer laws are evidence of both regulatory parÂ�ameters and an institutional endorsement of the product’s centrality to German life and culture. Similarly, the EnÂ�glish pub, especially in its Arcadian village setting, is not merely a place that dispenses ale but also a core feature of rural social life—Â�a meeting place that predates the notion of demoÂ�cratic assemblies as a setting for vigorous discussions. In the village in southern Â�England where I grew up, Â�people repaired to the local tavern Â�after church on Sunday, where they debated the sermon with the rector over a pint. Â�Here, alcohol fueled theological debates rather than stymieing them! Visit a pub in central London at 6:00 p.m. Â�toward the end of the working week and you Â�will witness an almost tribal affirmation of beer’s role in easing the transition from work to play for the city’s professionals in their pin-Â� striped suits and smart dresses. Despite the salience of beer in many cultures, alcohol consumption also has its darker side. For Â�those of a fundamentalist religious bent it was, and often still is, the epitome of evil; the devil incarnate in a beverage that dulled the senses and diminished responsibility. For many of the Â�women who Â�were instrumental in the Anti-Â�Saloon League in the United States, it was a beverage that separated their husband from their paychecks and left many a Â�family further impoverished. ix Untapped Similar sentiments (and beÂ�havÂ�ior) were Â� found in industrial cities throughout northern EuÂ�rope as workers sought daily refuge from their Â�labor. Even Â�today Â�there is widely held belief that young men in most socieÂ�ties apparently have difficulty taming their boisterous senses, and beer has often been the lubricant that facilitates the inevitable misbehavior. Look no further than the ongoing debate about alcohol-Â�fueled incidents of rape on college campuses to appreciate that beer and young Â�people can be a toxic combination. And so the list of detractors continues. Moral opprobrium, delinquency, and criminal acts notwithstanding, Â�there are many who affirm beer’s centrality. Benjamin Franklin’s (apocryphal?) quote that “Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy” clearly legitimized the beverage for many. It was an imporÂ�tant cargo for the passengers on the Mayflower, who in 1620 set sail with a hold full of small (low alcohol) beer and sought land sooner than they might have liked Â�because their food and beer supplies Â�were exhausted. The Dutch settlers in New Netherland contained prominent families whose fortunes had been made in commercial brewing. German settlers to the upper Midwest took their brewing traditions with them and essentially established the style of beer that would become commonplace in the United States. Several continents away, EnÂ�glish merchants developed a beer (India Pale Ale—Â�the forerunner of current IPA) that would travel long distances and remain reasonably fresh in the hot humid conditions of the South Asia. If we fast-Â�forward to the twenty-Â�first century Â� we find beer to be the third most popuÂ�lar beverage in the United States (Â�after water Â� and soft drinks) and a quarter trillion–Â�dollar industry. Emerging countries such as China have massive brewing industries, slaking the thirst of the countless millions in their rush to modernity and a consumer culture built around alcoholic beverages. So despite the detractors, beer occupies a central position in many cultures. While beer’s current acknowledged role in society lacks much of the earlier controversy, understanding its historical roots as well as recent trends merits further study. We are familiar from stories in the press about the growing concentration among the major global brewers. Currently underway is AB-Â�InBev’s $108 billion offer for SAB Miller PLC, which if successful Â�will result in a global mega brand. However, this follows a Â�century of mergers and acquisitions in the West, where first local, then regional, and fiÂ�nally national brands Â�were acquired and consolidation took place with relentless efficiency. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, small breweries Â�were reemerging, emphasizing better ingredients, finely crafted quality, and limited production. It was a new style of beer that attempted to reinterpret old ways of making beer and differentiate itself from the x Foreword increasingly homogenized product associated with the mega brewers that dominated the supermarket shelves and bars. Academic studies Â�were soon to realize that Â�these two sets of players occupied difÂ�ferÂ�ent niches and therefore competition between the two remained limited (Carroll and Swaminathan 2000). In recent years though, as the bigger brands became even larger, the smaller ones became more numerous and the craft beer revolution became headlines. As with any entrepreneurial endeavor, the supply of a new product requires a demand to sustain it. Thus, understanding the broader cultural consumer environment that surrounds the fascination with craft beer merits investigation. With more than four thousand breweries in the United States Â�today and new ones opening Â�every week, who exactly is drinking all of this beer? The Real Ale Movement (CAMRA) in Â�England has an almost apostle-Â�like zeal among its adherents, and no good pub is without such a product. Â�Will this save the traditional pub? Are other significant trends in consumer beÂ�havÂ�ior exemplified by craft brewing? While craft beer prices soared, supply of and demand for the product seemed to increase. Almost inevitably, the major companies started acquiring craft brewers but retained the name and local identity to retain authenticity. This is not atyÂ�piÂ�cal for an industry that responds to the growth of successful niche players, so Â�there is nothing surprising about corporate beÂ�havÂ�ior here. Â� On the other hand, many young, bearded males continue to see beer as an avocation rather than a means of inebriation. Curiously, young Â�women do not possess the same enthusiasm for making the product, unlike wine, which has attracted this demographic to the ranks of winemakers. Â�Will this change? FiÂ�nally, are we seeing a continued diversity of product—Â�one that represents a certain local capability and style? Or are we beginning to see what many argue is an inevitable homogeneity in products as tastes become standardized? Â�Will IPAs become the new brewing norm? All of Â�these and many other intriguing issues are dissected and analyzed in this fascinating and timely book. As sociologists examine Â�these trends, they bring insights that journalistic interpretations often gloss over. They provide nuanced answers to far-Â�ranging questions of how a seemingly commonplace product such as beer can have such a fascinating and esoteric heritage. In doing Â� so, they tell a story of a product that has essentially been reinvented for the current day and age by invoking practices and ingredients of old. In a postmodern industrial age, it seems we relish our premodern artisanal practices. Craft brewing is just one example of such a trend—Â�albeit one that provides a multiplicity of pleasures and sensory (re)awakenings. xi Untapped REFERENCE Carroll, Glenn, and Anand Swaminathan. 2000. “Why the Microbrewery Movement? OrgaÂ�nizational Dynamics of Resource Partitioning in the US Brewing Industry.” American Journal of Sociology 106 (3): 715–762. xii Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of Craft Beer Introduction and Overview Nathaniel G. Chapman, J. Slade Lellock, and Cameron D. Lippard Over the past 30 years, the production and consumption of craft beer has boomed in the United States and Western EuÂ�rope. Much of the economic growth in U.S. breweries is attributed to the sharp increase in and popularity of craft beer breweries. In the United States between 2007 and 2012, there Â� was a 118% increase in established breweries—Â�from around 398 to 869 breweries (U.S. Census 2014). By 2015, over 4,000 breweries existed in the United States, which is the largest number of breweries in this country since 1873, at which time there Â� were Â� around 2,000 breweries (Brewer’s Association 2015). The profits from sales of kegs, cans, and Â�bottles of craft beer have increased concomitantly, leading to an industry worth over $100 billion as of 2013 (Brewers Association 2013b). In addition, the number of individuals employed by breweries increased by 17.2%, and about 81% of Â�those new employees worked in smaller breweries, which hired 19 employees or fewer (U.S. Census 2014). The increases of established breweries, employment opportunities, and profits have also outpaced Â�those in the wine and spirits industries across most of the United States (U.S. Census 2014). The Brewer’s Association (2013c) bases their definition of craft breweries on three criteria. The brewery should be small (produce less than 6 million barrels of beer a year). It should be inÂ�deÂ�penÂ�dent (not owned by an alcoholic beverage corporation). And the beers should come from traditional to innovative brewing ingredients. Â�These criteria led to the inclusion of many microbreweries, 1 Untapped brewpubs, and regional breweries, accounting for 98% of the breweries but only $14.3 billion of the $100 billion beer market. A notable trend in the growth of craft breweries and the brewing industry in general is the movement into new regions across the United States. At the beginning of the craft beer revival in the United States in the 1990s, breweries Â�were more highly concentrated along the West Coast and particularly in the state of Washington. However, since the early 2000s, the growth of new microbreweries and brewpubs in the South, North, and Midwest has outpaced the initial growth in the West. For instance, although the Brewer’s Association consistently ranks California, Washington, and Colorado as the top three states in the number of breweries, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, North Carolina, and Illinois Â�were in the top ten as of 2015 (see Â�table i.1). As of 2001, most of Â�these states, excluding the top three, had fewer than ten craft beer breweries. In fact, states like North Carolina now have 161 breweries, adding $1.2 billion to the state’s economy. Western EuÂ�roÂ�pean countries have also seen a boom in craft beer production and consumption. For example, in 2016 Cabras and Bamforth reported that the number of breweries in Â�Great Britain was the highest in 1900, but by 1980, it had dropped to only 142. However, by 2015, the number of breweries increased to over 1400 in Â�Great Britain; the majority were Â� microbreweries. As in the United States, the rise in breweries happened largely Â�because of three things: Â� the public’s dissatisfaction with the variety of beers and clear marketing campaigns for traditional ales as an alternative to mass-Â�produced beer (Cabras and Bamforth 2016; see also, Smith Maguire et al., chapter 1 in this volume). Beginning in the 1990s, Â�Great Britain also saw more individuals, such as retirees and beer-Â�lovers, shifting into careers Â� in brewing, which surged the industry forward once more. In addition, poÂ�litiÂ�cal moves in legislation such as the Beer Â�Orders in 1989 required larger brewers in the United Kingdom to Â�either sell or relinquish a large number of their brand-Â�owned pubs, allowing these Â� pubs to sell other beers, particularly craft beers (Preece 2016). By the turn of the twenty-Â�first Â�century, the United Kingdom saw significant increases in the number of microbreweries; at least 100 new breweries Â�were started in 2014 and another 150 in 2015 (Brewers Association 2015). In addition, the United Kingdom saw a 4.2% increase in beer sales, equaling about $5.3 billion. Even SABMiller agreed to acquire Meantime to compete against the growth of craft beers in the United Kingdom (Boyle and Buckley 2015). Boyle and Buckley (2015) suggest that in 2015 Â�Great Britain had more breweries per person than anywhere in the world; about forty new microbreweries ring the city of London, which was a thirteenfold increase from the previous deÂ�cade. 2 Nathaniel G. Chapman, J. Slade Lellock, and Cameron D. Lippard Â�Table i.1.╇ Craft Beer Sales and Production Statistics by State, 2015 Rank State Economic Number Impact of Craft Breweries (millions) Barrels of Craft Beer Produced Breweries per Capita (per 100,000 adults 21 or over) 1 California 518 $6,890 3.8 million 1.9 2 Washington 305 $1,650 426,000 5.9 3 Colorado 284 $2,720 1.8 million 7.3 4 Oregon 228 $1,830 1.1 million 7.7 5 New York 208 $2,290 1.1 million 1.4 6 Michigan 205 $1,850 770,000 2.9 7 Texas 189 $3,770 1.1 million 1 8 Pennsylvania 178 $4,490 4.1 million 1.9 9 10 North Carolina 161 $1,200 676,000 2.2 Illinois 157 $2,270 595,000 1.7 Source: Brewer’s Association, “State Craft Beer Sales & Production Statistics, 2015.” Accessed September 8, 2016, http://Â�www╉.Â�brewersassociation╉.Â�org╉/Â�statistics╉/Â�by╉-Â�state. Although not as robust as in the United Kingdom, other examples of the expansion of craft beer across Western EuÂ�rope include the rise of specialty beers and microbreweries in “beer-Â�drinking” countries such as the Republic of Ireland, Denmark, and Germany. For example, Guinness, Ireland’s largest and global beer comÂ�pany, released two beers in 2014 to compete with the craft beer market: a Dublin Porter and a West Indies Porter that stayed with the tradition of dark and heavy beers (Kedmey 2014). This comÂ�pany has also created beers that are hoppier and lighter, including a Guinness Blonde Ale, to compete in American markets. In Denmark, where Carlsberg has been the beer of choice for deÂ�cades, the twenty-Â�first century Â� has seen the opening of 200 microbreweries; Â�there are now 700 difÂ�ferÂ�ent kinds of beers in the area (Stächelin 2014). While Â�these microbreweries still have only less than 5% of the market share in Denmark, Â�these beers are selling better in other EuÂ�roÂ�pean countries. In Germany, the 1516 Reinheitsgebot, or German Beer Purity Laws, that required beer in Germany be made with only three ingredients—Â�water, barley, and hops—Â�has restricted brewers from making distinctive beers with difÂ�ferÂ�ent flavors and ingredients. In the 1990s, German brewers realized that they could not compete with world market demands for craft beer and have started smaller operations to brew new beers 3 Untapped outside of the laws. In addition, American craft brewers like Stone Brewing have set up shop in Germany to bring pale ales and co...
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