plugin-Stoics%20and%20Plato%20handout - Plato(~429-347 BCE...

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Plato (~429-347 BCE) “The European philosophic tradition consists of a series of footnotes to Plato” -- A.N. Whitehead. ‘Socratic Dialogues’. The indirect argumentation reflects pedagogical theory: learning is active rather than passive. The theory of forms Three questions: How can many things all “have one thing in common”? How do we arrive at absolute concepts, those that are ideal or set a standard? How do we learn absolute truths through reflection? Plato’s answers: Material things participate in the Forms Absolute concepts derive from direct knowledge of the Forms All learning is recollection of the Forms. The two worlds The world of shadows: change, flux, corruption, death, ignorance (Heraclitus) The world of Forms: incorruptible, immaterial, unchangeable, perfect Doctrine of participation explains both permanence and change The soul The body is the prison of the soul, and causes the ignorance of the soul. Arguments for the existence of an immaterial soul (see notes on the Phaedo below): Recollection argument Like knows like: uncompounded, eternal. The soul’s home is the world of Forms. Rejects alternate theories of the soul/mind: e.g. soul is material, soul is a “harmony”
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plugin-Stoics%20and%20Plato%20handout - Plato(~429-347 BCE...

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