22.05
Reactor Physics – Part One
Course Introduction
1.
Instructor:
John A. Bernard
2.
Organization:
Homework (20%)
Four Exams (20% each; lowest grade is dropped)
Final
Exam (3.0 hours)
(20%)
3.
Text:
The text book for this course is:
Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3
rd
Edition,
by John Lamarsh.
This covers basic reactor physics as part of a complete survey
of nuclear engineering.
Readings may also be assigned from certain of the books
listed below:
±
Nuclear Reactor Analysis by A. F. Henry
±
Introduction to Nuclear Power by G. Hewitt and J. Collier
±
Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering by J. Shultis
and R. Faw
±
Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection by J. Turner
±
Nuclear Criticality Safety by R. Kneif
±
Radiation Detection and Measurement by G. Knoll
.
Course Objective:
To quote the late Professor Allan Henry:
4
“The central problem of reactor physics can be stated quite simply.
It is to compute, for
any time t, the characteristics of the freeneutron population throughout an extended
region of space containing an arbitrary, but known, mixture of materials.
Specifically we
wish to know the number of neutrons in any infinitesimal volume dV that have kinetic
energies between E and E +
∆
E and are traveling in directions within an infinitesimal
ngle of a fixed direction specified by the unit vector
Ω
.
a
If this number is known, we can use the basic data obtained experimentally and
theoretically from lowenergy neutron physics to predict the rates at which all possible
nuclear reactions, including fission, will take place throughout the region.
Thus we can
1
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View Full Documentpredict how much nuclear power will be generated at any given time at any location in
the region.”
There are several reasons for needing this information:
±
Physical understanding of reactor safety so that both design and
operation is done intelligently.
±
Design of heat removal systems.
±
Fuel management.
There are several approaches to the estimation of the neutron population:
±
Neutron Life Cycle Analysis:
Used for design of the original
reactors in the 1950s and early 1960s before computers were
available.
Very useful for physical understanding.
±
OneVelocity Model:
A form of diffusion theory in which all
neutrons are assumed to have the same speed.
Hence, it allows for
geometrical and material, but not energy, effects.
Useful for
designing unreflected (bare) fast reactor cores.
±
Diffusion Theory:
Design tool for most existing PWRs/BWRs.
Also called fewgroup theory or multigroup theory because the
neutrons are treated as in distinct energy ranges or groups.
±
Transport Theory:
Methods for solving the Boltzmann transport
equation (not covered in this course).
Monte Carlo Methods:
Design technique that is currently
Reactor is precisely modeled as to its material and spatial
properties.
Individual neutron case histories are projected using
probability theory.
Case histories are run until the statistics are
sufficient to assure that an accurate picture of the overall neutron
The choice of an ana
c
5
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 Fall '09
 B.Forget
 Proton, Neutron, Neutrons, Nuclear physics, steam generator

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