3-6 notes - Post-Independence Mexico 1821-1867 Aftermath of...

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Post-Independence Mexico, 1821-1867 Aftermath of Latin American Political Independence from Europe New Political Systems Constitutional monarchies—Brazil, Mexico(at first) Republics with “representative” governments—people with property Two main challenges: Political Instability Traditional political authority had been undermined—no more royal authority Disagreements over the course of the new nations—economics, politics Foreign intervention—no longer part of an empire, cannot call upon a mother country to defend them from intervention. For European countries, these are “sitting ducks” and want to add them to their empire. Mexico’s Problems in the 19th Century Political Instability 16 presidents and 33 provisional heads of state between 1824 and 1857 (49 in 33) Almost constant war (civil war, wars against foreign intervention)—US, France Foreign Intervention Loses half its territory to U.S (1848) French Intervention places Mexico under control of a European monarch (1863- 1867)—Napoleon III? Mexican Politics after Independence Failed experiment with monarchy (Iturbide) leads to republic modeled after U.S. Two main political forces emerge in national politics Federalists--landowners .Power to states .Widespread suffrage .Want gov’t based on popular participation and consensus Centralists—mostly merchants .Strong central gov’t weak states .strong army to insure order among popular classes .Limited suffrage to exclude rural poor from politics Initially after monarchy, federalists are in charge of gov’t, and pass a constitution. Eventually, though, starting at about 1830, centralism becomes much more powerful Centralism Under Santa Anna
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