Plumbing Summary 1 and 2 Combine, RNPCP,Fajardo.pdf -...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1: ELEMENTS OF PLUMBING PLUMBING Plumbing the art and technique of installing pipes, fixtures, and other apparatuses in buildings for bringing in the supply of liquids, substances and/or ingredients and removing them; and such water, liquid and other carried-wastes hazardous to health, sanitation, life and property pipes and fixtures after installation i.e., the ‘plumbing system’. (Section 217.6 The Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines 1999) PLUMBING SYSTEM Plumbing System includes all potable water supply and distribution pipes, all plumbing fixtures and traps; all sanitary and storm drainage systems; vent pipes, roof drains, leaders and downspouts; and all building drains and sewers, including their respective joints and connections; devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within the property; water lines in the premises; potable, tap, hot and chilled water piping; potable water treating or using equipment; fuel gas piping; water heaters and vents for same. (Section 217.12 NPC 1999) A Plumbing system, reduced to its simplest terms, consists of a supply pipe leading to a fixture and a drainpipe taking the used water away from this fixture. The system constitutes the following: 1. The water supply and water distribution system. Carries water from the water source, street main or a pump to the building and to various points in the building at which water is used. 2. The plumbing fixtures. The receptacles that receive the supplied water and allow the occupants of the building to use the water. 3. The drainage system. The piping network within the building which conveys from the plumbing fixtures all wastes and fecal matter (sanitary drainage) as well as rainwater (storm drainage) to a point of disposal or a treatment facility. THE PLUMBER The plumber is the one who works or engages in the business of installing in buildings the pipes fixtures and other apparatus for bringing in the water supply and removing liquid and waterborne wastes. There are three categories of plumbers based upon their graces of experiences. They are: 1. Apprentice plumber- a beginner at the trade who usually serves for 3 to 5 years as helper to a journeyman. 2. Journeyman plumber- has served his apprenticeship and is competent to perform the tasks of installing and repairing plumbing. 3. Master plumber- a person technically and legally qualified and licensed to practice the profession of master plumbing without limitations in accordance with Republic Act 1378, having passed the examinations conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), has received a certificate of registration from the board of master plumbing and possesses the current license to practice. (Section 214.5 NPC 200) THE PLUMBING CODE The improper installation of plumbing may affect the health of the occupants of a building and create a center point for the spread of disease. The possibility is of sufficient public interests to require the regulation of plumbing by law. The right of the government to regulate the details of plumbing is based on the principle of the protection of public health. The basic goal of the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines is to ensure the qualified observance of the latest provision of the plumbing and environmental laws. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 1. All premises intended for human use or habitation shall be provided with a supply of pure and wholesome water, neither connected to unsafe water supply nor subject to backflow or back- siphonage. 2. Plumbing fixtures, devices and appurtenances shall be supplied with water in sufficient volume and pressure adequate to function satisfactorily and without undue noise. 3. Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper performance and cleaning. 4. Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed and installed as to prevent dangers from explosion through overheating. 5. Every building abutting on a street, alley or easement with a public sewer shall connect its plumbing fixtures to the sewer system. 6. Each family dwelling unit shall have at least one water closet, one kitchen type sink, a lavatory and a bathtub or shower to meet the basic requirements of sanitation and personal hygiene. 7. Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth non-absorbent material, free from concealed fouling surfaces and shall be located in ventilated enclosures. 8. The drainage system shall be designed, constructed and maintained to safeguard against fouling, deposit of solids, clogging and with adequate cleanouts so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned. 9. All piping shall be of durable NAMPAP-approved materials, free from defective workmanship, designed and constructed by Registered Master Plumbers to ensure satisfactory service. 10. Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with a water-sealed trap. 11. The drainage pipes piping system shall be designed to provide adequate circulation of air free from siphonage, aspiration or forcing of trap seals under ordinary use. 12. Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air and installed to prevent clogging and the return of foul air to the building. 13. Plumbing systems shall be subjected to such tests to effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the workmanship. 14. Substance which will clog the pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their joints or interfere unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall not be allowed to enter the building drainage system. 15. Proper protection shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, sterile goods and similar materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fixture, device or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the building drainage system. 16. No water closet shall be located in a room or compartment which is not properly lighted and ventilated. 17. If there is no sewer system in the area, suitable provision shall be made for the disposal of building sewage by some accepted method of sewage treatment and disposal, such as a septic tank. 18. Where a plumbing drainage system may be subject to backflow of sewage, suitable provision shall be made to prevent its overflow in the building. 19. Plumbing systems shall be maintained in serviceable condition by Registered Master Plumbers. 20. All plumbing fixtures shall be installed properly spaced, to be accessible for their intended use. 21. Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to the preservation of the strength of structural members and the prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture usage. 22. Sewage or other waste from plumbing systems, which may be deleterious to surface or sub-surface waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any waterway, unless first rendered innocuous through subjection to some acceptable form of treatment. BRIEF HISTORY OF PLUMBING PRACTICE IN THE PHILIPPINES • In 1902, the Plumbing Trade was duly recognized by the government in the City of Manila. Master Plumber John F. Haas became the first Chief of the Division of Plumbing Construction and Inspection. A Plumbing Code based on the Plumbing Code of the United States was incorporated into the Building Code for the City of Manila. • In 1935, the National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines (NAMPAP) was formally organized • Manila City Ordinance 2411, the “Plumbing Code of the City of Manila” was enacted and placed under the Department of Public Services, Manila. • In 1954, the Third Congress approved House Bill No. 962 which in June 18, 1955, became R.A. 1378 “Plumbing Law of the Philippines” upon ratification of President Ramon Magsaysay. • On January 28, 1959, the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines prepared by NAMPAP was promulgated and approved by Malacañang. • Before Martial Law in 1972, Republic Act No. 6541 otherwise known as the “Building Code of the Philippines” was passed with the “National Plumbing Code of 1959” as referral code in full text. • The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) adopted the Revised Plumbing Code of 1999 which President Joseph Estrada approved December 21, 1999 pursuant to Section 4 of R.A. 1378 known as the Plumbing Law. TYPICAL PLUMBING SYSTEM OF A TOILET AND BATH CHAPTER 2: PROPERTIES OF WATER GENERAL Water plays an important part in the plumbing system. It is a common, but in many ways, an unusual liquid. Large quantities of water are required in buildings for personal use, food preparation, cleaning and general domestic purposes, and possibly also for fire fighting, laundries, swimming pools, irrigation and recreational use. We sometimes tend to think of water as an inexhaustible natural resource. However, our supply of fresh water is definitely limited, and improved conservation practices are necessary if our needs are to be supplied. THE DEMAND OF WATER DEMAND Drinking, Cooking, Dishwashing Personal Washing and Domestic Cleaning Laundry Fire Fighting Swimming Boilers and Heating Plants Irrigation REQUIREMENT Must be pure, sterilized and protected from contamination. Supplies taken direct from mains or from exclusive storage. Similar but moderated to allow cold and hot supplies to be drawn from main storage tank or cistern via distribution network. Generally clean and wholesome, soft and free form Iron and Manganese staining. High Pressure. Connections must not permit contamination of mains water. Clean, filtered and sterilized with free chlorine residue for post-sterilization. Can be recirculated. Soft treated water, stored and circulated separate from domestic supplies. No special requirement, except reasonably free from solids and slit (result in blocked Pipes and nozzles) and uudecomposed material (pollution). THE WATER CYCLE The cycle basically consists of water entering the atmosphere through evaporation and returning through condensation is that these processes result in natural water purification. When water evaporates, only water molecules leave the surfaces; salts and other solids in solution remain behind. The condensed water is thus purified water- except in so far as it picks up pollutants in the air. Thus evaporation and condensation of water vapor are the source of all natural fresh water on earth. Fresh water from precipitation falling on the ground gradually make its way through streams, rivers and lakes to oceans or seas as a result. As precipitation hits the ground, it may follow either of two alternative pathways, which are A molecule of H2O can absorb a maximum capacity of 12 grains. (Relative Humidity) RH= (4/12) x 100= 33% RH= (10/12) x 100= 83.33% Impervious Layer- does not allow H2O to pass through. 9. Purified Water- water that undergoes a process where the pollutants are removed or rendered harmless. 10. Polluted Water- water that contains one or more impurities that make the water unsuitable for a desired use. 11. Gray Water- water drained from lavatories, sink, laundry trays and showers; contains minor pollutants. 12. Black Water- water drained from water closets and urinals; carries body wastes and contains major pollutants. 13. Storm Water- rainwater drained from roof gutters and downspouts. WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS AND THEIR CORRECTION PROBLEM 1. Acidity CAUSE Contains carbon dioxide. Cistern and pond waters containing decaying vegetation are likely to be acidic EFFECT Corrosion of nonferrous pipes, rusting and clogging of steel pipes. 2. Hardness Presence of Magnesium and Calcium Clogging of pipes. Impaired laundering and food preparation. 3. Turbidity Silt or suspended matters picked up in surface or near surface flow. Presence of Iron and Manganese Discoloration and bad taste. 4. Color 5. Pollution Contamination by organic matter or sewage CORRECTION Passing the water through a bed of crushed marble or limestone to achieve alkalinity, or adding sodium silicate. Introduction of water softeners made up of Zeolite (a greenish granular material) Filtration Discoloration of Precipitation by fixtures and Laundry filtration through manganese zeolite (oxidizing filter) Disease Chlorination WATER PURIFICATION Water purification is any method that will remove one or more materials that make the water unsuitable for a given use. The methods that are commonly used in water purification are: 1. Settling or Sedimentation 2. Filtration 3. Adsorption/ Flocculation-Coagulation 4. Aeration 5. Distillation 6. Disinfection/ Chlorination The natural water includes all of these purification methods except disinfection. Sitting in lakes, ponds, or the oceans, water is subject to settling (sedimentation). As it percolates through soil or porous rocks, it is filtered (filtration). Soil and humus are also good chemical adsorbents (coagulation/ flocculation). As water flows down streams and rivers, detritus is removed by biological oxidation (aeration). As water evaporates and condenses, it is distilled (distillation). Thus, numerous freshwater sources might be safe to drink were it no for human pollution. The most serious threat to human health is contamination with diseasecausing organisms and parasites, which come from the excrements of humans and their domestic animals. In human settlements, one can see how the organisms may get into water and be passed onto people before any of the natural purification processes can work. THE METROPOLITAN CEBU WATER DISTRICT (MCWD) The Metropolitan Cebu Water District (MCWD) is the sole commercial provider in Metro Cebu comprising of four cities and four municipalities. As of year 2000, MCWD served 40% of the total population of Metro Cebu. MCWD is primarily tasked to deliver adequate, safe, potable and affordable water to is conssionares. MCWD has two sources or its water supply: 1. Ground Water 2. Surface Water GROUND WATER TREATMENT PRECESS USED BY MCWD Ground water sources are naturally and presumably purified by a compact thick filter media layer of ungraded sands, soils and rocks at considerable depth. Hence, disinfection using Chlorine Gas and other Chlorine Salts is the only treatment process employed. Here, water that is extracted from their ground through a pumping equipment is allowed to pass through chlorination facility using chlorine gas to kill any presence of coliform organisms and other froms of bacteria. Water is the stored in a reservoir ready for distribution into each concessionaire’s faucet. At certain areas in the distribution network, Direct feed pumping stations are employed to augment the water supply. These are strategically located in different areas Metro Cebu. SURFACE WATER BASIC TREATMENT PROCESS EMPLOYED BY MCWD Runoff or surface water is first stored in dam. From this, water goes through a series of treatment processes. The Buhisan Dam (Tisa Filtration) Buhisan Dam is Cebu’s first and only dam MCWD’s only surface water source. It supplies the Tisa (Labangon) filter plant with up to 600 cubic meter per hour (600,000 liters per hour or 158,400 gallons per hour) or about an average of 4,000 cubic meter daily (4 million liters or 1.05 million gallons). This dam is located in Buhisan, a southern mountain baranggay of Cebu City. This was designed by 27 year-old Eusebius Julius Halsema. AG and P, the winning bider, asked Php 463, 628.00 to do the work. On November 10, 1911, the dam was completed and ready to be filled. With a height of 27 meters, the concrete dam has a conical arch design which transfers the stress in the reservoir (caused by water strain) to the sides of the dam thereby anchoring it firmly in place. Three 4.5 meter wide flood gates exist for flood control purposes. Its long concrete spillway allows overflow water to escape safely when the dam gates are raised. Two kilometers of raw water main pipes extend from the dam to the distribution reservoir in Tisa. From the latter, a four kilometer pipeline distributes water to concessionaires in Cebu City. Another 21 kilometers of pipelines were also laid for improved water distribution. Today the almost 100 year old Buhisan Dam is as strong as when it first operated. TREATMENT PROCESS MCWD treats the surface water using the conventional process comprising of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aeration Coagulation- Flocculation Sedimentation Filtration Disinfection/ Chlorination 1. Aeration- Water is sprayed into the air to release any trapped gases and absorb additional oxygen for better taste. 2. Coagulation- Flocculation- This is the process by which small sediment particles which do not settle well combine together to form larger particles which can be removed by sedimentation. This process includes physical and chemical process: a. Coagulation- is the chemical process in which the coagulant reacts with the sediment to make it capable of combining into larger particles. This is called destabilization. b. Flocculation- is the physical process in which the sediment particles collide with each other and stick together. 3. Sedimentation- This is the process by which suspended solids are removed from the water by gravity settling and deposition. This process usually follows coagulation-flocculation. The objective of this process is to remove most of the suspended solids, reducing the loads on the filters. 4. Filtration- This is the passage of fluid through a porous medium suspended matter which did not settle by gravity. In water purification, matter to be removed includes suspended silt, clay, colloids, and microorganisms including algae, bacteria, and viruses. A filter bed consists of a granular non-porous material held one place by the force of gravity or by the direction of flow. 5. Disinfection/ Chlorination- This is the most important process used in the production of water of a safe and sanitary quality. Chlorination is the method of introducing a controlled amount of chlorine to the water in order to attain a desired degree of disinfection. After the processes, water is stored in a reservoir, then to the transmission mains, then to the, distribution lines, down to the service connections and lastly to the concessionaire’s faucet. SURFACE WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT SYSTEM Water is taken from the water shed reservoir and piped to the treatment plant. At the plant, (1) water is aerated to release trapped gases and to absorb oxygen for better taste, (2) Alum/tawas (aluminum sulfate) is added to coagulate organic particles, and (3) the water is put into a settling basin for several hours to allow coagulated particles to settle. It is then (4) filtered through sand filters, (5) Chlorine is added to kill bacteria and put into a storage tank for distribution to concessionaires. CHAPTER 3: PLUMBING FIXTURES FIXTURES- receptacles attached to a plumbing system other than a trap in which water or waste may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system. COMMON TYPES OF PLUMBING FIXTURES USED IN RESIDENCES 1. Water closet 2. Lavatory 3. Kitchen sink 4. Urinal 5. Bidet 6. Bath tub WATER CLOSET- A plumbing fixture used to receive human excremental and to discharge it through a waste pipe, using water as a conveying medium. Water closets are classified according to design, make, flushing mechanism, shape and installation. A. TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO DESIGN 1. Siphon washdown 2. Siphon jet 3. Siphon Vortex 4. Reverse trap 1. SIPHON WASHDOWN- The least expensive but the noisiest; only small amount of standing watersusceptible to fouling, staining and contamination. It is mechanically satisfactory and is lower in price. Hence, it is widely used and entirely acceptable where price is the main consideration. 2. SIPHON JET- The jet being submerged introduces its water underwater so that its operation is entirely muffled. It has a large amount of standing water to prevent fouling. It is mechanically efficient but expensive. 3. SIPHON VORTEX- this type of bowl develops its flushing action through the water entering through diagonal holes around the rim which creates a swirlin...
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