Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1: ELEMENTS OF PLUMBING
Plumbing the art and technique of installing pipes, fixtures, and other apparatuses in buildings for bringing
in the supply of liquids, substances and/or ingredients and removing them; and such water, liquid and
other carried-wastes hazardous to health, sanitation, life and property pipes and fixtures after installation
i.e., the ‘plumbing system’. (Section 217.6 The Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines 1999) PLUMBING SYSTEM
Plumbing System includes all potable water supply and distribution pipes, all
plumbing fixtures and traps; all sanitary and storm drainage systems; vent pipes, roof
drains, leaders and downspouts; and all building drains and sewers, including their
respective joints and connections; devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within the
property; water lines in the premises; potable, tap, hot and chilled water piping; potable
water treating or using equipment; fuel gas piping; water heaters and vents for same.
(Section 217.12 NPC 1999)
A Plumbing system, reduced to its simplest terms, consists of a supply pipe
leading to a fixture and a drainpipe taking the used water away from this fixture.
The system constitutes the following:
1. The water supply and water distribution system. Carries water from the water
source, street main or a pump to the building and to various points in the building
at which water is used.
2. The plumbing fixtures. The receptacles that receive the supplied water and allow
the occupants of the building to use the water.
3. The drainage system. The piping network within the building which conveys from
the plumbing fixtures all wastes and fecal matter (sanitary drainage) as well as
rainwater (storm drainage) to a point of disposal or a treatment facility.
The plumber is the one who works or engages in the business of installing in
buildings the pipes fixtures and other apparatus for bringing in the water supply and
removing liquid and waterborne wastes.
There are three categories of plumbers based upon their graces of experiences. They
1. Apprentice plumber- a beginner at the trade who usually serves for 3 to 5 years
as helper to a journeyman. 2. Journeyman plumber- has served his apprenticeship and is competent to perform
the tasks of installing and repairing plumbing.
3. Master plumber- a person technically and legally qualified and licensed to
practice the profession of master plumbing without limitations in accordance with
Republic Act 1378, having passed the examinations conducted by the
Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), has received a certificate of
registration from the board of master plumbing and possesses the current license
to practice. (Section 214.5 NPC 200)
THE PLUMBING CODE
The improper installation of plumbing may affect the health of the occupants of a
building and create a center point for the spread of disease. The possibility is of
sufficient public interests to require the regulation of plumbing by law. The right of the
government to regulate the details of plumbing is based on the principle of the
protection of public health.
The basic goal of the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines is to ensure the
qualified observance of the latest provision of the plumbing and environmental laws.
THE BASIC PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE
1. All premises intended for human use or habitation shall be provided with a
supply of pure and wholesome water, neither connected to unsafe water supply nor
subject to backflow or back- siphonage.
Plumbing fixtures, devices and appurtenances shall be supplied with water
in sufficient volume and pressure adequate to function satisfactorily and without undue
Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of
water consistent with proper performance and cleaning.
Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed and installed as to
prevent dangers from explosion through overheating.
Every building abutting on a street, alley or easement with a public sewer
shall connect its plumbing fixtures to the sewer system.
Each family dwelling unit shall have at least one water closet, one kitchen
type sink, a lavatory and a bathtub or shower to meet the basic requirements of
sanitation and personal hygiene.
Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth non-absorbent material, free from
concealed fouling surfaces and shall be located in ventilated enclosures.
The drainage system shall be designed, constructed and maintained to
safeguard against fouling, deposit of solids, clogging and with adequate cleanouts
so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned.
All piping shall be of durable NAMPAP-approved materials, free from
defective workmanship, designed and constructed by Registered Master Plumbers
to ensure satisfactory service.
Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped
with a water-sealed trap. 11. The drainage pipes piping system shall be designed to provide adequate
circulation of air free from siphonage, aspiration or forcing of trap seals under
Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air and installed to prevent clogging
and the return of foul air to the building.
Plumbing systems shall be subjected to such tests to effectively disclose all
leaks and defects in the workmanship.
Substance which will clog the pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy
the pipes or their joints or interfere unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall
not be allowed to enter the building drainage system.
Proper protection shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water,
sterile goods and similar materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fixture,
device or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the building drainage system.
No water closet shall be located in a room or compartment which is not properly
lighted and ventilated.
If there is no sewer system in the area, suitable provision shall be made for the
disposal of building sewage by some accepted method of sewage treatment and
disposal, such as a septic tank.
Where a plumbing drainage system may be subject to backflow of sewage,
suitable provision shall be made to prevent its overflow in the building.
Plumbing systems shall be maintained in serviceable condition by Registered
All plumbing fixtures shall be installed properly spaced, to be accessible for
their intended use.
Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to the preservation of the strength
of structural members and the prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces
through fixture usage.
Sewage or other waste from plumbing systems, which may be deleterious to
surface or sub-surface waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any
waterway, unless first rendered innocuous through subjection to some acceptable form
of treatment. BRIEF HISTORY OF PLUMBING PRACTICE IN THE PHILIPPINES
• In 1902, the Plumbing Trade was duly recognized by the government in the City
of Manila. Master Plumber John F. Haas became the first Chief of the Division of
Plumbing Construction and Inspection. A Plumbing Code based on the Plumbing
Code of the United States was incorporated into the Building Code for the City of Manila.
In 1935, the National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines
(NAMPAP) was formally organized
Manila City Ordinance 2411, the “Plumbing Code of the City of Manila” was
enacted and placed under the Department of Public Services, Manila.
In 1954, the Third Congress approved House Bill No. 962 which in June 18,
1955, became R.A. 1378 “Plumbing Law of the Philippines” upon ratification of
President Ramon Magsaysay.
On January 28, 1959, the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines
prepared by NAMPAP was promulgated and approved by Malacañang.
Before Martial Law in 1972, Republic Act No. 6541 otherwise known as the
“Building Code of the Philippines” was passed with the “National Plumbing Code of
1959” as referral code in full text. • The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) adopted the Revised
Plumbing Code of 1999 which President Joseph Estrada approved December 21, 1999
pursuant to Section 4 of R.A. 1378 known as the Plumbing Law. TYPICAL PLUMBING SYSTEM OF A
TOILET AND BATH CHAPTER 2: PROPERTIES OF WATER GENERAL
Water plays an important part in the plumbing system. It is a common, but in
many ways, an unusual liquid. Large quantities of water are required in buildings for
personal use, food preparation, cleaning and general domestic purposes, and possibly
also for fire fighting, laundries, swimming pools, irrigation and recreational use.
We sometimes tend to think of water as an inexhaustible natural resource.
However, our supply of fresh water is definitely limited, and improved conservation
practices are necessary if our needs are to be supplied.
THE DEMAND OF WATER
Drinking, Cooking, Dishwashing
Personal Washing and Domestic Cleaning Laundry
Boilers and Heating Plants
Must be pure, sterilized and protected from
contamination. Supplies taken direct from
mains or from exclusive storage.
Similar but moderated to allow cold and
hot supplies to be drawn from main
storage tank or cistern via distribution
Generally clean and wholesome, soft and
free form Iron and Manganese staining.
High Pressure. Connections must not
permit contamination of mains water.
Clean, filtered and sterilized with free
chlorine residue for post-sterilization. Can
Soft treated water, stored and circulated
separate from domestic supplies.
No special requirement, except reasonably
free from solids and slit (result in blocked
Pipes and nozzles) and uudecomposed
material (pollution). THE WATER CYCLE
The cycle basically consists of water entering the atmosphere through
evaporation and returning through condensation is that these processes result in natural water purification. When water evaporates, only water molecules leave the surfaces;
salts and other solids in solution remain behind. The condensed water is thus purified
water- except in so far as it picks up pollutants in the air. Thus evaporation and
condensation of water vapor are the source of all natural fresh water on earth.
Fresh water from precipitation falling on the ground gradually make its way
through streams, rivers and lakes to oceans or seas as a result. As precipitation hits the
ground, it may follow either of two alternative pathways, which are A molecule of H2O can absorb a maximum capacity of 12 grains.
RH= (4/12) x 100= 33%
RH= (10/12) x 100= 83.33%
Impervious Layer- does not allow H2O to pass through.
9. Purified Water- water that undergoes a process where the pollutants are
removed or rendered harmless. 10. Polluted Water- water that contains one or more impurities that make the
water unsuitable for a desired use.
11. Gray Water- water drained from lavatories, sink, laundry trays and showers;
contains minor pollutants.
12. Black Water- water drained from water closets and urinals; carries body
wastes and contains major pollutants.
13. Storm Water- rainwater drained from roof gutters and downspouts.
WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS AND THEIR CORRECTION
1. Acidity CAUSE
dioxide. Cistern and
vegetation are likely
to be acidic EFFECT
Corrosion of nonferrous pipes,
rusting and clogging
of steel pipes. 2. Hardness Presence of
Calcium Clogging of pipes.
preparation. 3. Turbidity Silt or suspended
matters picked up in
surface or near
Presence of Iron
and Manganese Discoloration and
bad taste. 4. Color 5. Pollution Contamination by
organic matter or
Passing the water
through a bed of
crushed marble or
achieve alkalinity, or
Introduction of water
softeners made up
of Zeolite (a
Filtration Discoloration of
fixtures and Laundry filtration through
Chlorination WATER PURIFICATION
Water purification is any method that will remove one or more materials that
make the water unsuitable for a given use. The methods that are commonly used in
water purification are:
1. Settling or Sedimentation
3. Adsorption/ Flocculation-Coagulation 4. Aeration
6. Disinfection/ Chlorination
The natural water includes all of these purification methods except disinfection.
Sitting in lakes, ponds, or the oceans, water is subject to settling (sedimentation). As
it percolates through soil or porous rocks, it is filtered (filtration). Soil and humus are
also good chemical adsorbents (coagulation/ flocculation). As water flows down
streams and rivers, detritus is removed by biological oxidation (aeration). As water
evaporates and condenses, it is distilled (distillation).
Thus, numerous freshwater sources might be safe to drink were it no for human
pollution. The most serious threat to human health is contamination with diseasecausing organisms and parasites, which come from the excrements of humans and
their domestic animals. In human settlements, one can see how the organisms may
get into water and be passed onto people before any of the natural purification
processes can work.
THE METROPOLITAN CEBU WATER DISTRICT (MCWD)
The Metropolitan Cebu Water District (MCWD) is the sole commercial provider in
Metro Cebu comprising of four cities and four municipalities. As of year 2000,
MCWD served 40% of the total population of Metro Cebu.
MCWD is primarily tasked to deliver adequate, safe, potable and affordable water to
MCWD has two sources or its water supply:
1. Ground Water
2. Surface Water
GROUND WATER TREATMENT PRECESS USED BY MCWD
Ground water sources are naturally and presumably purified by a compact thick
filter media layer of ungraded sands, soils and rocks at considerable depth. Hence,
disinfection using Chlorine Gas and other Chlorine Salts is the only treatment process
employed. Here, water that is extracted from their ground through a pumping equipment
is allowed to pass through chlorination facility using chlorine gas to kill any presence of
coliform organisms and other froms of bacteria. Water is the stored in a reservoir ready
for distribution into each concessionaire’s faucet.
At certain areas in the distribution network, Direct feed pumping stations are
employed to augment the water supply. These are strategically located in different
areas Metro Cebu.
SURFACE WATER BASIC TREATMENT PROCESS EMPLOYED BY MCWD Runoff or surface water is first stored in dam. From this, water goes through a
series of treatment processes.
The Buhisan Dam (Tisa Filtration)
Buhisan Dam is Cebu’s first and only dam MCWD’s only surface water source. It
supplies the Tisa (Labangon) filter plant with up to 600 cubic meter per hour (600,000
liters per hour or 158,400 gallons per hour) or about an average of 4,000 cubic meter
daily (4 million liters or 1.05 million gallons).
This dam is located in Buhisan, a southern mountain baranggay of Cebu City. This was
designed by 27 year-old Eusebius Julius Halsema. AG and P, the winning bider, asked
Php 463, 628.00 to do the work. On November 10, 1911, the dam was completed and
ready to be filled.
With a height of 27 meters, the concrete dam has a conical arch design which
transfers the stress in the reservoir (caused by water strain) to the sides of the dam
thereby anchoring it firmly in place.
Three 4.5 meter wide flood gates exist for flood control purposes. Its long
concrete spillway allows overflow water to escape safely when the dam gates are
Two kilometers of raw water main pipes extend from the dam to the distribution
reservoir in Tisa. From the latter, a four kilometer pipeline distributes water to
concessionaires in Cebu City. Another 21 kilometers of pipelines were also laid for
improved water distribution.
Today the almost 100 year old Buhisan Dam is as strong as when it first
MCWD treats the surface water using the conventional process comprising of the
Disinfection/ Chlorination 1. Aeration- Water is sprayed into the air to release any trapped gases and absorb
additional oxygen for better taste. 2. Coagulation- Flocculation- This is the process by which small sediment particles
which do not settle well combine together to form larger particles which can be
removed by sedimentation. This process includes physical and chemical
a. Coagulation- is the chemical process in which the coagulant reacts with
the sediment to make it capable of combining into larger particles. This is
b. Flocculation- is the physical process in which the sediment particles
collide with each other and stick together.
3. Sedimentation- This is the process by which suspended solids are removed from
the water by gravity settling and deposition. This process usually follows
coagulation-flocculation. The objective of this process is to remove most of the
suspended solids, reducing the loads on the filters.
4. Filtration- This is the passage of fluid through a porous medium suspended
matter which did not settle by gravity. In water purification, matter to be removed
includes suspended silt, clay, colloids, and microorganisms including algae,
bacteria, and viruses. A filter bed consists of a granular non-porous material held
one place by the force of gravity or by the direction of flow.
5. Disinfection/ Chlorination- This is the most important process used in the
production of water of a safe and sanitary quality. Chlorination is the method of
introducing a controlled amount of chlorine to the water in order to attain a
desired degree of disinfection.
After the processes, water is stored in a reservoir, then to the transmission mains, then
to the, distribution lines, down to the service connections and lastly to the
concessionaire’s faucet. SURFACE WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT SYSTEM
Water is taken from the water shed reservoir and piped to the treatment plant. At
the plant, (1) water is aerated to release trapped gases and to absorb oxygen for better
taste, (2) Alum/tawas (aluminum sulfate) is added to coagulate organic particles, and (3)
the water is put into a settling basin for several hours to allow coagulated particles to
settle. It is then (4) filtered through sand filters, (5) Chlorine is added to kill bacteria and
put into a storage tank for distribution to concessionaires. CHAPTER 3: PLUMBING FIXTURES
FIXTURES- receptacles attached to a plumbing system other than a trap in which water
or waste may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system.
COMMON TYPES OF PLUMBING FIXTURES USED IN RESIDENCES
1. Water closet
3. Kitchen sink 4. Urinal
6. Bath tub WATER CLOSET- A plumbing fixture used to receive human excremental and to
discharge it through a waste pipe, using water as a conveying medium. Water closets
are classified according to design, make, flushing mechanism, shape and installation.
A. TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO DESIGN
1. Siphon washdown
2. Siphon jet 3. Siphon Vortex
4. Reverse trap 1. SIPHON WASHDOWN- The least expensive but the
noisiest; only small amount of standing watersusceptible to fouling, staining and contamination. It is
mechanically satisfactory and is lower in price. Hence,
it is widely used and entirely acceptable where price is
the main consideration. 2. SIPHON JET- The jet being submerged introduces its
water underwater so that its operation is entirely muffled.
It has a large amount of standing water to prevent fouling.
It is mechanically efficient but expensive. 3. SIPHON VORTEX- this type of bowl develops its flushing
action through the water entering through diagonal holes
around the rim which creates a swirlin...
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