This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Population geography: Population and Migration A brief history of population growth The end of the last ice age (about 10,000 years ago) 8000 B.C. to 1 A.D. 1 A.D. to 1750 1750 to 1900 1900 to 1965 1965 to 2000 Factors affecting human population growth Births, deaths, and migration Population change = (births + immigration) (deaths + emigration) Zero population growth (ZPG) Birth rate (crude birth rate) Death rate (crude death rate) Annual rate of population change % = birth rate death rate x 100 1,000 persons OR % = birth rate death rate 10 Fertility rates Replacement level fertility Total fertility rate U.S. not even close to ZPG-- Why? Factors affecting birth and fertility rates? Death rates Life expectancy Infant mortality rate Factors affecting the death rate? Age structure (diagrams) A profile of populations by age and sex Population pyramids Narrow bases Wide bases The geography of population and population growth East Asia, southeast Asia, south Asia, Europe, and eastern North America 60% of the world's population lives in Asia China and India account for 38% of the world's population The demographic transition model
1. 1. 1. Preindustrial Industrialization begins Industrial stage high mortality and fertility declining mortality and high fertility mortality stabilized at a low level and fertility rate approaching level of mortality 1. A post industrial stage?
ZPG Thomas Malthus (Malthusians) Essay on Population (1798) Population increases geometrically while food increases arithmetically population growth Emphasis on NeoMalthusians Population growth still a primary factor behind social stress and environmental degradation Advocate forms of birth control Economic arguments: Neoclassical economic theory Population growth is not a problem Argue that neoMalthusians ignore the role of markets Assumes a pure free market system Economic arguments: supplyside demography New version of the neoclassical argument Ultimate resource = human inventiveness Again, assumes a pure free market system Inequality or stratification arguments Complex set of arguments Emphasizes global political and economic structures as the cause of inequality, population growth, human misery, and environmental problems Increasing urbanization Urban area Push and pull factors Megalopolis How urbanized is the US? In 1800 only 5% of Americans lived in cities Today? Four main shifts in US population Migration Migration = move from one location to another Emigration = movement from a location Immigration = movement to a location Net in versus Net outmigration Circulation = shortterm movements Push/Pull Factors Three main types of push/pull factors Economic Cultural Jobs, economic restructuring, new discoveries E.g. Mexico, Asia Slavery, political instability and boundaries, democracy versus Environmental
Florida totalitarianism Refugees forced to migrate E.g. Rwanda, Cuba Physically attractive places versus hazardous ones E.g. Rockies, Sahel, floodplains, Dustbowl, southwest US, Migration Intervening obstacles Environmental Cultural Migration Short distance same country Long distance economic centers International migration Voluntary Forced Internal migration Interregional Intraregional Migration Long distance migrants male (historically) Long distance migrants adult individuals Developing Developed Migration to the US Prior to 1840 After 1840 Britain Early 1900s Western Europe Southern and Eastern Europe US Europe's "safety valve" Today? Migration to the US Clusters Quotas = maximum limits California, New York, New Jersey, Florida, Texas, and Illinois Chain migration Who can migrate? Brain drain Origin Family Destination NPR (2005) US attitudes toward immigrants
"Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free" Emma Lazarus Illegal/legal immigration Guest worker program ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course GEOG 1101 taught by Professor Connor during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.
- Fall '08