2019Spring_14_InternetAddressing.pdf - Internet Addressing IPv4 and IPv6 Introduction An Internet Protocol address(IP address is a numerical label

2019Spring_14_InternetAddressing.pdf - Internet Addressing...

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Internet Addressing IPv4 and IPv6
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Introduction An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. There are two primary standards: IP version 4 (IPv4) IP version 6 (IPv6) The Internet is currently in transition between the two versions.
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IP Addressing Schemes IP specifies that each host is assigned a unique number known as the host’s “Internet Protocol Address”, “IP Address”, or “Internet Address”. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses When sending a packet across the Internet, the sender must specify its own IP address (source address) the address of the intended recipient (destination address)
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IP Address Hierarchy and Uniqueness Each IP address is divided into a UUUWWWJKNN]]] and a XXXZZZKKNN]]] The UUUWWWJKNN]]] identifies the physical network to which the host is attached Each physical network is assigned a unique network number Coordinated globally The XXXZZZKKNN]]] identifies the specific computer on the network Each computer is assigned a unique suffix A network number is responsible to ensure that uniqueness Assigned locally The combination of the previous two points - the prefix and the suffix ensure uniqueness across the Internet
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Classes of IP Addresses IPv4 scheme has 32 bits Designers had to decide how many bits to allocate to prefix and how many to suffix Allocating more to prefix accommodates many networks, but fewer computers within a given network Allocating more to suffix accommodates many computers on a network, but fewer networks Designers chose a hybrid addressing scheme to accommodate both large and small networks called HQQFXXXXXXKZZZQQ ,3 FIIWWWJXXXXXXNNSSSLL Divides the space different classes where each class has a different size prefix and suffix Use smaller prefixes for larger networks
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Five classes of IPv4 in the original classful scheme Class A: bit 0 is 0, bits 1-7 are prefix, bits 8-31 are suffix Class B: bits 0-1 are “10”, bits 2-15 are prefix, bits 16-31 are suffix Class C: bits 0-2 are “110”, bits 3-23 are prefix, bts 24-31 are suffix Class D: bits 0-3 are “1110”, bits 4-31 are used for “multicast addressing” data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously Multicasting feature not available globally, rather restricted to individual sites Class E: bits 0-3 are “1111”, bits 4-31 are reserved (unassigned)
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IPv4 Dotted Decimal Notation IPv4 addresses are stored as 32-bits, i.e. binary Users refer to each set of 8 bits (“octet”) by its decimal equivalent The four sets of 8-bits are separated by periods Minimum octet value is 0, maximum is 255 Dotted addresses range from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 Multicast addresses range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 Example: 32-bit binary number: 10000001 00110100 00000110 00000000 Equivalent dotted decimal: 129.52.6.0
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Authority for Addresses
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  • Fall '19
  • IP address, Subnetwork, Classless Inter-Domain Routing

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