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Dutch Baroque and Versailles

Dutch Baroque and Versailles - Dutch Baroque and Versailles...

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Dutch Baroque and Versailles Exam on Tuesday, No Class Thursday, Professor leaves Fed 22 nd (ask questions before this). Professor van Hook will take over class on the following Tuesday. Dutch Baroque Art 17 th century. Holland. Referred to as “The Golden Age”. Golden Age not only because of wonderful art produced during this period, but because it sets the stage for modern tradition and also because Holland was a preeminent financial force (merchant economy). European Exploration and Colonization of New World (Dutch spearheaded this~ Indonessia and Africa) ***Power out of proportion to geographic size (tiny size). Pro-democracy. Protestant Country. Open Minded Society (Religious Tolerance & Black Africans welcome- skin color doesn’t matter) Highest Literacy rate in Europe. Water soaked (Amsterdam and Dutch World) – Canals used for defense. Walls around city. Much of Holland lies below sea level. Constantly fighting back the sea (trying to pump water out all the time). Jan van Goyen, View of Leiden, 1650 Illustrates the idea of landscape Dutch baroque Art- size of images and paintings are becoming much smaller because the patrons of Dutch Art are not Catholic churches or well to do nobility. Rather they are upper middle class merchants. They want pictures they can hang in their homes. Size is now much more comprehensible. Painting is now embracing new genres. Holland = protestant country. Protestants do not like religious symbols. (Reasons 1 for landscapes) Holland is using art to define itself as a nation-state. (Reason 2 for landscapes) Landscapes celebrate common land of the Dutch Republic! Specifically targeted to man made (controlled) features of nature. Jacob van Ruisdael, Windmill at Wijk Landscape (Windmill by the sea) Recognizably Dutch (Windmill= icon of Dutch society) View that the artist could have just seen while walking around Holland Quality- has a reality affect. Naturalistic and Recognizable Contrast to drama of other Baroque Art Celebrate daily touchable world around them. Painting created in a studio from sketches and drawings. This painting was reorganized and conceptualized in the studio. The artist chooses what to emphasize and what to delete. Ruisdael here emphasizes the Windmill.
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Windmills = symbolism. They stand for practical use (pump water out of groundwater) but also for religious significance. Turning spokes of windmill are a reference point to the cross (religious). Grain references back to religious idea of bread (communion). Daily Life picture but also slightly religious. Foreground- 3 women stand. They stand where a gate would have been (the gate would have been called “The 3 women”. He does not want his composition to be split by a wall.
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