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TOPIC #1: ORIENTATION; BASIC UNITS AND CACLULATIONS The purpose of this first lab session is to acquaint you with the overall general idea of laboratory science, and to get you started on some basic calculations. We will discuss the general idea of this portion of Biochem 107, and get familiar with the various types of units used to measure length, mass, and volume, and how to do some basic conversions. Be sure you bring your calculator to each lab session, including this one. Objectives: By the end of today's lab session, you should: 1. Know and understand the metric units for length, mass, and volume, and be familiar with the Celsius temperature scale. 2. Be able to make metric/English conversions (you don’t need to know conversion factors). 3. Understand and be able to manipulate the prefixes of the basic units of measure. 4. Be able to convert numbers to scientific notation and vice versa. 5. Understand the terms error (random vs systematic), accuracy, precision, & uncertainty. 6. At least be beginning to enjoy the time you spend in Biochem 107L. A. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Common units of metric system measurement are given below, along with their English equivalents and conversion factors ( don’t memorize the conversion factors! ). Measurement Metric English Conversion length meter (m) inch (in) 1 in = 2.54 cm mass gram (g) pound (lb) 1 lb = 454 g ounce (oz) 1 oz = 28.35 g volume liter (L) quart (qt) 1 qt = 0.946 L The entire scientific community utilizes the metric system, and we will use it exclusively in this course. You will also use it routinely in your future career, so you need to have a good working knowledge. You should also be able to convert units between the metric and English systems, and convert units within the metric system. Be sure you understand the material in Section 1.3 – Measurement in Chemistry (pp. 11-16) of your textbook, in particular the portions on conversions. We will help you with this during this lab exercise if you need. The units of the metric system will be easier to remember and understand if you can relate them to the everyday world around you. For instance, keep in mind that one liter is about one quart , one kilogram weighs about 2 pounds , 100 g is about 4 oz (one-fourth of a pound; a stick of butter), etc. See the diagrams below Length Comparison of met ric and English unit s of lengt h 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm = 1 cm 3 1 cc = 1 mL 1, 000 cm = 1, 000 mL = 1 lit er (L) Volume and English unit s of volume Mass Compar ison of met ric and English unit s of volume 1 kg = 1, 000 g 2. 20 lbs Temperature Compar ison of t emperat ure scales Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit (K) ( ° C) ( ° F)
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Biochem 107L 1-2 The metric system has many advantages over the more complicated and archaic English system, the most obvious being that all units of a given measurement are related to each other by multiples of 10 .
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