ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY_II_&_III-2007-WEB

ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY_II_&_III-2007-WEB - Organic Chemistry...

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Organic molecules are covalent compounds composed of carbon (C). Carbon-carbon bonds form “structural skeletons” of organic molecules. Structural skeletons can be linear , branched (sometimes many), cyclic , or “aromatic” . All biomolecules (molecules of life, why and how we’re alive) are organic . Functional groups are special parts of organic molecules . They undergo Rx determined by their chemical properties. The same functional groups on different molecules usually undergo similar Rx. Isomers are different forms of molecules. They have the same molecular formula (atomic composition) but different structures (shapes). This is often very important in biological systems . Aromatic compounds (benzene derivatives) are special and different; their chemistry is related to their unique electron structure
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Objectives By the end of these two lectures, you should: - know how to name simple branched-chain hydrocarbons, and how to draw them if given their names. - understand the nature of alkene addition reactions , and be able to determine the expected products of these reactions - understand the general idea of polymerization of alkenes , and know the definitions of polymer and monomer - understand the general idea of functional groups and be able to identify and name them if you see them in organic molecules - know the definition of structural isomer and be able to draw isomers of a hydrocarbon given its molecular formula - know the definition of geometric isomers , and be able to recognize cis and trans configurations - know the definition of stereoisomers , and be able to recognize them - understand the concept of oxidation and reduction as it applies to the C atom and to organic molecules - understand the nature of aromatic compounds , including the structure and electron configuration of the benzene ring and common aromatic Rx - know how to name simple aromatic compounds
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= ethyl Branched chain structures and nomenclature Basic rules for all hydrocarbons: - name the chain (ends in ane, ene, or yne) - if alkene, specify C=C bond position (end closest to C=C is C1) octane Then determine branch group name(s) assign group position(s) – lowest # possible If branched , find the longest chain (not always as drawn); C C rotate freely C C l C C C C C C C C ― ― ― ― ― ― ― hept ene 3- hept ene 2- NOT 5-hept ene hepta diene 1,3- NOT 4,6-hepta diene ethyloctane C C C ― ― C C C C ― ― ― C C C ― ― ― C C C C C C C ― ― ― C C C C Draw complete structural formulas of all molecules 4-ethyloctane NOT! Isomers of
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BIOCHEM 107 taught by Professor Toews during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY_II_&_III-2007-WEB - Organic Chemistry...

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