GEN_CHEM_3-CHEMICAL_COMPOUNDS-2007-WEB

GEN_CHEM_3-CHEMICAL_COMPOUNDS-2007-WEB - Topic 3: Chemical...

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Topic 3: Chemical Compounds Objectives: By t he end of t his t opic, you should: 1. under st and t he dif f erence bet ween ionic and molecular compounds. 2. know a lit t le bit about Lewis st r uct ur es and why t hey ar e usef ul in visualizing chemical bonds and compounds. 3. be f amiliar wit h t he Oct et r ule and it s usage in explaining why cer t ain element s t end t o f or m ionic compounds ver sus molecular compounds. 4. under st and t he nat ur e of ionic, covalent , and polar covalent bonds, and be able t o classif y compounds wit h regard t o t heir t ype of bonds. 5. underst and and be able t o r ecognize monovalent , divalent , and polyat omic ions, as well as anions and cat ions. 6. underst and t he dif f erence bet ween a compound and a mixt ur e, and know t he t hr ee t ypes of mixt ur es (solut ions, colloids, and suspensions). 7. underst and t he nat ur e of par t ial char ges and nonpolar , polar , and hydrogen bonds. Suggest ed reading: DTC, Chapt er 3, pp. 77-93 Homework pr oblems: 3.29, 3.33, 3.39-3.42, 3.45, 3.46, 3.51, 3.91, 3.92
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Atomic number = charge of an atom = # of protons (# of + charges) - this defines the element Atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons atoms are electrically neutral - # of electrons = # of protons p e - Hydrogen atom 6p 6n 6e - Carbon atom Atoms protons, neutrons, & electrons REVIEW - Elements and Atoms Atomic number = 1 Atomic mass = 1 Atomic number = 6 Atomic mass = 12 Atomic symbols H 1 1 atomic mass atomic number symbol of element H 1 1 C 12 6 Chemical properties of atoms determined by electron configurations Valence (outer shell) electrons are the major players
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REVIEW - The Periodic Table of the Elements Forget about these elements Forget about these elements too 8 columns (families) Care about first 20 elements Rows (periods) Noble gases Valence e- everything (almost)
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Group Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1e- 2e- 3e- 4e- 5e- 6e- 7e- 8e- H He Li Be C N O F Ne Na Mg Al P S Cl Ar K Ca Number of Valence Electrons A nice way to visualize valence shell electrons Useful for figuring out how atoms will behave Electron dot (Lewis) structures Metals Nonmetals Metal vs nonmetal is important for predicting how atoms will react Metalloids – some properties of both
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Chemical Compounds – An Overview Compounds – atoms of an element combined with atoms of other elements (or the same element). Atoms are joined by chemical bonds Molecules – 2 or more atoms joined by covalent bond(s) Ionic attraction between oppositely charged ions that results from transfer of electrons. (e.g., NaCl; CaCO 3 ) Covalent sharing of valence electrons by atoms (e.g., O 2 , Cl 2 , H 2 0, C 6 H 12 O 6 ) - nonpolar – equal sharing of electrons polar
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BIOCHEM 107 taught by Professor Toews during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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GEN_CHEM_3-CHEMICAL_COMPOUNDS-2007-WEB - Topic 3: Chemical...

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