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History 156US History to 1865 David OrrFinal ExaminationPart I:1. Monroe Doctrine: A cornerstone of United States foreign policy. Delivered during PresidentJames Monroe’s seventh annual message to congress on December 2, 1823. By the year 1823 Latin American countries were gaining independence from European countries ie: Spain and Portugal. Russia was controlling shipping/trade from Alaska to Oregon. Britain was controlling trade routes in Latin America, and in an attempt to keep other European countries from entering Britain proposed to US to have a joint declaration or announcement that European countries would stay out of Latin America. President Monroe decided against the joint announcement and made the important Monroe (Doctrine) announcement that stated both the New and Old worlds should be two separate hemispheres. The United States would not intervene in European affairs and any attempt by European countries to colonize in the western hemisphere would be seen by the US as act of aggression against the US. The Monroe Doctrine started the move of the US moving away from Europe. Monroe Doctrine is still utilized as policy by the US to date. 2. Bleeding Kansas: A mini civil war between the borders of Missouri and Kansas also referredto as Bloody Kansas or Border Wars and roughly taking place between 1854-1861. Two groups fought against each other: On the Missouri side of the border was pro slavery group known as Border Ruffians, and on the Kansas side the anti-slavery was known as Free Staters. Beginning as political debate over the legality of slavery in Kansas. Following the Kansas-Nebraska act and Kansas becoming part of the union anti-slavery people began flooding into Kansas to try andeffect the vote. In an effect to thwart the vote pro-slavery activists known as the Border Ruffians were crossing the border. Significance of Bleeding Kansas while it was not a major war with an estimated 200 lives killed it showed how one thought about slavery whether pro or against could lead to violence, setting up a precursor to the Civil War and violently splitting the nation. 3. Uncle Toms Cabin (Life Among the Lowly): An anti-slavery novelwritten and published in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe. While residing in Ohio, Stowe was able to see the effects of runaway slaves and the stories they would tell of their lives as slaves in the south broke her heart.Based off these tragic stories she put pen to paper to share the slave’s experiences of the slaves masters and how their separation from loved ones though sales on the market. Stowe also depicted in the novel how slavery brought out the worst in people, and if these masters were not involved in slavery, they would never commit these atrocities. The reaction mainly in the North was overwhelming with over 300,000 copies sold and mainly banned in the south, and also helped in defeat of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850. Stowe’s novel also influenced Britain’s opinion as it was a high seller in Britain and helping to sway the publics opinion in supporting the Confederacy.