K50 Midterm - Google Docs.pdf - K50 Midterm Review Keywords...

This preview shows page 1 out of 17 pages.

Unformatted text preview: K50 Midterm Review Keywords 1. Kim Ch’unch’u/ Gim Chunchu Kim Ch’unch’u o 7th century Silla o Nephew of Queen Sondok; lost daughter in Paekchae attack and vengeful o His diplomatic ties with China helped Silla ally with Tang o Eventually became a King Taejong Muyeol and made even stronger ties with China 2. Kim Yusin / Gim Yusin Kim Yusin o 7th century Silla o General who led to unification of Korea § Helped solidify alliance with China § Defeat and conquer Paekchae § Kick China out after their help o Hwarang 3. Yi T’oegye(Yi Hwang) Yi T’oegye o 16 th century Confucian scholar Choson o Neo­confucian literati o Importance of personal experience and moral self cultivation 4. Yi Sônggye Yi Sŏnggye o 14 th century ruler of Choson o Founder of Choson o Helped overthrow Koryo dynasty o Originally in the military – defended Koryo from Mongols o Mandate of Heaven o Neo­confucian society and suppress Buddhism 5. Ch’oe Ch’unghŏn Ch’oe House Rule o 13 th century Koryo o Pseudo­feudalism o Gained power by relying on supporters – army of peasants and slaves o Choe Chunghon – first ruler o Slaves and peasants got pissed cause some got promoted o Mongol invasions ­ Choe house fled and moved the capital moved to Kanghwa island – dgaf about the people and just let the Mongols terrorize them Ch’oe Ch’ung hŏn o Ruled in 13 th century Koryo o Under Choe house rule 6. Imjin War Imjin Wars/Hideyoshi Invasions ‐ o 16 th century invasion of Choson o Japanese occupied Seoul for weeks and took Pyongyang o Yi Sun­sin defeated the Japanese fleet by strangling their supply routes 7. Ûlchi Mundôk Ŭlchi Mundŏk o Koguryo commander at Battle of Salsu (7 th century) o Indicative of militarism and territorial wars at the time o Chinese Sui vs Koguryo o Despite repeated attempts, Chinese Sui unable to conquer 8. Treaty of Kanghwa Treaty of Kanghwa o 19 th century o Japanese attacks Choson and wins o Extra territoriality – Japanese people on Korean soil not subject to Korean laws o Open up Korea for trade 9. Wa( ) Japanese force of Yamato Gov. 10. Taewŏn’gun the Taewŏn’gun o 19 th century Choson o Father of King Kojong o Dynastic restoration like China o Household tax o High officials based on merit o Alienated many yangban 11. King Gongmin King Kongmin o 14 th century Koryo o Yuan dynasty failing at this point o Allied with Ming China o Wife – princess Noguk; mongol princess o Advised by Sin Ton to get rid of Mongols 12. Kabo Reform Kabo Reforms o 19 th century Choson o Taewongun o Korea re­instated as independent from China o Established cabinet centered constitutional monarchy o equality 13. Wang Kōn Wang Kŏn 왜 야마토정권 o 10th century Koryo o The good; King Taejo o Called the good because he won so history was written that way o 29 wives – to unite the peninsula o United Korea o Overthrew Kungye o Kyon Hwon’s sons joined him o Wrote 10 injunctions – very Buddhist o Believed in Confucian management of state affairs and royal succession o Cultural advances o Distinguish self from china 14. Chosôn / Joseon 15. Old Chosôn / Joseon Old Chosŏn o 30 th century to 3 rd century BCE o Origin of Korea people/culture o First society with articulated political structure o Manchuria or North Korea near Pyongyang o Combined with other town­states to form single confederation by 4 th century BCE o Theocracy; multiethnic 16. Kwanggaet’o King Kwanggaet’o o At turn of 5 th century o Reigned at peak of Koguryo power o Pushed boundaries of Korea – known as “extender of territory” o Stele erected in China; legitimize invasions 17. Five Moral Relations 이성계 단군조선 ● ● samgang : ● ● ● oryun : ● ● ● ● ● 충忠 효孝 열熱 chung ( , ): loyalty to the king hyo ( , ): filial obedience to the parents yeol ( , ): differentiation between men and women 의義 ui ( , ): righteousness and justice: the relationship between monarch and the people chin ( , ): warmth and closeness between parents and children byeol ( , ): differentiation between husband and wife seo ( , ): order between seniors and juniors sin ( , ): trust between friends 친親 별別 서序 신信 18. King Sejong King Sejong o 15 th century Choson o 4th king o Try to make Choson more education oriented o Enact Hunmin Chongum o Histories o Gazetteers o Geographies 19. Humnin Chōngūm Hunmin chŏngŭm o 15 th century Choson o New writing system o Enacted by King Sejong 20. Hong Kyōngnae Hong Kyŏngnae Rebellion o 19 th century Choson o Charismatic malcontent o Similar to Myochong rebellion o Fallen Yangban in response to taxation and forced labor during famine and crop fail 21. Tan’gun / Dangun Tan’gun o Origin of the Korean people and culture; product of a god who became human and a bear who became a woman o established Choson o 1500 year reign o 30 th century BC o Reaffirms claims of linear/homogenous history of Korea o Outside person à ruler o Culture was transmitted through culture/interaction o Myth demonstrates that he is not like other beings – as later kings were born from eggs, he was born from mythical means as well – legitimize his kingship Tan’gun wanggŏm o title given to political leader of Choson o describes officiates in religious services to heaven 22. King Yōngjo King Yŏngjo o Longest reign of Choson o 18 th century o Policy of impartiality – treat all factions equally 23. Lady/Empress Ki Lady/Empress Ki o 14 th century lived with Mongols o Korean woman – sent as tribute payment o Became secondary empress to Toghun Temur Khan o Loved Mongols o Son would become Yuan monarch o Lots of power and money – tried to kick husband off throne for son o Beauty and extravagance o Spread Koryo style through Mongol empire 24. Parhae/Pohai Parhae o 8th to 10 th century o North of Silla – Manchuria and NK o Successor of Koguryo o Koguryo elites and Malgal populace o Eventually lost to Khitan Liao o Cultural blend – shows culturally diverse o The only place keeping Korea unified 25. Tonghak Uprising Tonghak Uprising o 19 th century o Tonghak founded by Choe Cheu o Chon Pongjun led uprising o 4 point manifesto § Don’t kill innocent or destroy property § Filial to parents and sovereign § Drive out Japanese § Restore Confucian order o Want to restore Taewongun and kick out Min o Gov’t asked Chinese for help putting them down, Japanese get mad that Chinese are coming 26. Stagnation theory ??? 27. Later 3 Kingdoms Later Paekche o Yi Kyonhwon (the bad) founded 10 th century o Result of rebellions in Silla because of peasant taxes o Attacked Silla capital – raped queen and killed king o Dethroned by eldest son when he tried to enthrone a younger one Kyŏn Hwŏn o Poor peasant and foot soldier in Silla o Same as above Later Koguryŏ o Founded by King Kungye in 10 th century o 10 th century o Short­lived 28. Koryô Koryŏ o 10 th – 14 th century o Unification of Korea 29. 3 Kingdoms. Koguryŏ ­ North o 1st century BCE to 7 th century o Founded by Chumong – egg birth, skilled archer, supernatural in killing enemies § Aka Tongmyong o Koguryo grew intermittently, thriving more when neighbors posed less of a threat o northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, and southern Russia o one of the 3 kingdoms of Korea o Since China had issues, it allowed Koguryo to expand and grow economically, culturally, socially o Not monolithic continuous states in ancient history o Geography not = political entities or borders o Lots of migration of people/culture/ideas o Diff countries have different view on origin of Koguryo § Need to look beyond territory and nationalism § Go beyond imposition of present­day thinking on ancient past Paekche – southwest o Found by Onjo o 0th century BCE to 7 th century o Defeated by Silla­Tang alliance o Close ties with Japan; many advances from them o Impressive advances in religion and culture o Buddhism was huge Silla o 0th century BCE to 10 th century o Royal sponsorship of Buddhism and peak in political and social power o Southeast o Allied with Tang to conquer Paekche and Koguryo in 7 th century o Kingship originally from 3 clans – Kim kings and Pak queens o Father­son succession o Bone Rank system est in 0 th century o Gender equality o Hwabaek council – council of nobles o Taxation o Unified Korea 31. Amrok / Yalu river ( ) 32. Queen Seondeok 압록강 Queen Sŏndŏk o Central character in unification of Silla Unification o 7th century Silla o First reigning queen o Very Buddhist 35. Seol Chong ( ) The monk. . . 36. Chang Pogo /Jang Bogo Chang Pogo o 9th century Silla o Military career in T’ang China o Maritime figure with huge private army o Tried to manipulate Silla throne o Became too powerful and was assassinated o Represent rise of warlords 37. Choe Chiwon Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn o 9th to 10 th century Silla o Korean Confucian official, philosopher, and poet o 6th head rank o Criticized bone rank system o Proposed exam system to appoint men of talent o Unable to rise high in gov’t o Retired in self­imposed exile away from capital o Lasting impact – disgruntled with bone rank system 38. 10 injunctions Ten Injunctions o 10 th century Koryo o Written by Wang Kon o Support Buddhism o Oldest to succeed throne unless unworthy o Don’t copy Chinese o Visit capital o Listen to criticism but kill people who are just wrong o Don’t listen to the outsiders – they’re shady 39. King Gwangjong King Kwangjong o 10 th century o attempt to stabilize Koryo ○ eliminated those who would not submit to him ○ sought to limit power of local gentry ○ civil service exams 958 통일신라 학자 원효대사의 아들 해골물 ■ can get govt official positions ○ not popular 40. Tripitika Koreana Tripitaka Koreana o 80,000 blocks o 13 th century o Korean collection of Buddhist scriptures o Show dedication of Buddhism; shows skill and artistry 41. Bone Rank system (Slia , , 6 ) Bone rank system o social system of Silla; Hallowed Bones = Elites, True Bones= aristocracy, head ranks 6­1 o 0th to 10 th century???? o Rigid social structure prevented social mobility, led to much discontent, Queen Chindok was the last Hallowed Bone 42. Myocheong/ Myoch’ŏng Myoch’ŏng o 12 th century Koryo o Buddhist monk and geomancer o Urged king to move capital to Pyongyang o Urged king to declare himself emperor equal to Chinese emperor and attack Jurchen Chin to north § Aristocrats don’t want to move it because the ones there lose power o Strife between Kaesong based Confucian, pro­chinese aristocrats and Pyongyang based “xenophobes” o Myochong’s revolt – finds own empire in Pyongyang o Claimed Korea to be weak from Confucian ideals o Represent struggle between Korean and Confucian ideals 43. Mongol­Korean invasion Red Turban invaders o 14 th century Koryo o Chinese rebellion against Yuan – weakened Yuan o Invaded Koryo and took Pyongyang o End of Mongol rule 44. Chŏng Tojŏn/ Jeong Dojeon Chŏng Tojŏn o 14 th century Choson o Neo­confucian supporter and advisor to King Taejo o Laid down the ideological, institutional, and legal foundations o Replaced Buddhism with Confucianism as official religion 46. King Kojong King Kojong o 19 th to 20 th century Choson 성골 진골 두품 o Began rule at 12 years old o Let father Taewongun rule 47. Sin Saimdang Sin Saimdang o 16 th century Choson o Mother of Yulgok o Embodiment of good Confucian woman – poet, calligrapher, artist, etc 48. Malgal Malgal people o Mentioned by K and Ch in 1 st century o Many different views on Malgals from diff countries o 7 tribes? o Malgal language and customs were the same as those of Koguryo and Parhae 49. The 1170 military coup 1170 Military Coup o 12 th century Koryo o Chong chungbu and others led military uprising o Felt that the military wasn’t treated well enough and civil people were o Make new king o Military people fight amongst themselves 50. Kyōngguk Taesōn ( ) Gyeongguk daejeon is Choson’s code of law. King Sejo reformed the law.(classified as 6) 51. Sōnggyungwan 52. Sino­Japanese War Sino Japanese War o 19 th century o Japanese seize palace o Taewongun power restablished o Treaty of Shimonoseki § China recognizes autonomy of Korea § Japan gets Taiwan and peninsula 53. Yōndung and P’algwan( ) 경국대전 조선의 법전 조선시대 대학 ‐ 삼국사기 연등과 팔관회 삼국시대에 시작되어 고려시대 국가행사로 치러진 종교행사. 54. Tongmong sōnsup (Primer for Youth) ( ): . . The introductory book for Youth and it described the Oryun. , , , , 조선시대 동문선습 동몽선습 박세무가 쓴 책 오륜관하여 설명 부자유친 군신유의 부부유별 장유유서 봉우유신 ● oryun : ● 의義 ui ( , ): righteousness and justice: the relationship between monarch and the people chin ( , ): warmth and closeness between parents and children byeol ( , ): differentiation between husband and wife seo ( , ): order between seniors and juniors sin ( , ): trust between friends 친親 별別 서序 신信 55. Chu Sigyōng(독립운동가) ● ● ● ● 개화기의 국어학자로, 우리말과 한글의 전문적 이론 연구와 후진 양성으로 한글의 대중화와 근대화에 개척자 역할을 하였다. 한글을 보급한사람. 56. Righteous Army Righteous Army o yangban, peasants, slaves join forces against Hideyoshi invasions 58. Tonghak Tonghak o 19 th century Choson o Equality of all human beings 59. King Chŏngjo King Chŏngjo o 18 th century o Adopted by dead uncle of Yongjo because crowned prince wasn’t fit to be king 60. Jeong Yagyong Chŏng Yagyong o 18 th 19 th century Choson o greatest scholar of late choson o jack of all trades ­ wrote on states, philosophy, society, economics, etc o embraced catholic teachings o excused after death of King Chongjo in 1800 amidst catholic persecutions 61. Chungin 5 secondary status groups o Part of Choson 14 th century o Chungin o Technical officials, hereditary clerks o Secondary sons o Local elites of northern provinces o Military officials Korean 50, · Wiman Chosŏn o 2nd century BCE o general from the Chinese state of Yan, who submitted to Old Choson's King Jun; apt as commander of western border; controversy whether Korean or Chinese o Founded by refugee of border wars o Revolted and destroyed old choson o Agrarian confederated kingdom based on Old Choson o Fell to Han back in 108 BCE o Expanded to vast territory and controlled trade with China o Hybrid of Korean and Chinese o Japan assertions of superiority/older culture · Puyŏ o Manchuria to North Korea o 2nd century BCE to 5 th century o Puyo weaker and fell to Koguryo o Not monolithic continuous states in ancient history o Geography not = political entities or borders o Lots of migration of people/culture/ideas · Samhan o 2nd century BCE until around 4 th century o Mahan (SW) à Paekche or Koguryo? o Shinhan (SE) à Silla o Pyonhan (south central) à Kaya o WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? This is dumb. · Hwarang o Flower Youth Corps o 7th century Silla o Aristocrat youths that did things together so they would support each other eventually as rulers; camaraderie, learning, and service o Chronicles of Hwarang as model for traditional values, patriotism, national service, and martial arts · Buddhism o Religion began in Korea in 4 th century during 3 Kingdoms o 14 th century got replaced by neo­confucianism o Became accepted again after Imijin Wars in 16 th century o Koreanization of Buddhism § Shamanism and Buddhism were compatible § Shaman dieties became incorporated into Buddhism § King as living Buddha § Buddhism not one­way transmission but cultural interchange · Monks were active in development of Buddhist thought and doctrine and treaties · Tae Choyŏng o Founded and ruled in 8 th century Parhae o Tae Cho­yong est chin in 698, renamed Parhae in 713 o Former Koguryo general? supported by aristocracy of Koguryo o Exert control over nomadic Malgal tribes in the region · Kung Ye o Same as above – 10 th century, Silla royal family o Monk à soldier o Claimed to be Buddha o Started killing everyone that opposed him o Overthrown by Wang Kon · Slave Review Act o 10 th century Koryo o By King Kwangjong o would free slaves if they didn't have a bad past? o by giving freedom to some slaves and taking them away from powerful elites, the elites are less powerful and the once­slaves will support him · civil service examinations o 10 th century Koryo o Normal people could get government positions o Exams for people to take to see if they are worthy of govt positions; tested on Chinese classics o Like china o Very Confucian · King Injong o 12 th century Koryo o Faced rebellion by Myochong o Faced rebellion by Yi Cha­gyom o Approved the History of Three Kingdoms o Rewritten in his favor · Yi Cha gyŏm o 12 th century Koryo o Yejong’s FIL, Injong’s FIL x2 tried to take the throne himself from grandson o Failed attempt to overthrow King Injong o Married into the same family as Injong, tried to overthrow him when he took power o corruption · Kim Pusik o 11 th and 12 th centuries, Koryo o Wrote History of 3 Kingdoms for King Injong · History of the Three Kingdoms (Samguk Sagi) · Yangban o 14 th to 20 th century Choson o Upper class – nobility o Social strata ‐ · Mongol rule o 13 th to 14 th century Koryo o Dynasty founded by Genghis Khan and Kubilai Khan after Choe House Rule o Mongol invasions overthrew Choe House o Required hefty tribute of women, clothing, money o Marriage ties with Koryo o Contribution of Asian and European cultures o Promote trade o Advances in medicine, astronomy, engineering, pretty much everything o Lots of new infrastructure · son in law nation o 13 th 4o 14 th century Mongol Rule in Koryo o Mongol princesses, eunuchs, monks ran Koryo o Elites sought ties with Mongols o Early marriages of Koryo daughters so they wouldn’t get sent as tribute · · Yi Pangwŏn o 15 th century Choson o 3rd king of Choson o Son of King Taejo o Succession crisis – killed 2 brothers to get throne o Killed everyone that opposed him · Yi Sunshin o 16 th century Choson naval commander o Caught in political struggles against general Won Kyoun · turtle boats o 15 th to 19 th century Choson o Warships used by royal Korean navy o Dragon shaped head that could launch cannon fire or flames from mouth o High speed ship o Credited to Yi Sun­sin · · Confucianism o Created in 6 th century BCE china by Kung fu­tzu o Everyone has his place in society and you should stay in your place o Mandate of heaven gives legitimacy to ruler but can be taken away o Must act accordingly to role – ex: faithfulness from wife to husband o Civil service exams · Lady Yi ○ 16 th century Choson ○ Mother of Sin Saimdang, grandmother to Yulgok ○ After death, no sons so appt Yulgok as ritual heir · ‐ ‐ · Yi Yulgok ○ passed civil service exams in first place at age 13 ○ his appt as ritual heir shows change in family customs and growing importance of men ■ diminishing roles of women · King Sukchong o 17 th to 18 th century o Strengthened borders o Tax reforms o Tried to stop social discrimination o Famous for love triangle · Queen Inhyŏn o 17 th century o Part of love triangle · Lady Chang o Part of love triangle · Kisaeng o Began in Koryo 10 th century o Lowborns o Courtesans o Patrons were Yangban o Literate, artistic, talented · Northern Learning’s “utility for the greater good,” o 17 th and 18 th (flourished) century Choson o Beginning of factions of Choson; new thought form o Based on Ching Chinese model o Solve problems by logic and reason · “practical learning” o 17 th and 18 th centuries ○ blanket term used to reflect ideas that flourished in 17th and 18th centuries · Pak Chega o 18 th century Choson o Wrote travelogue on Northern learning and Choson’s failures o Advocate reforms along the lines of China · Manchu invasions o 17 th century Choson invasions o Choson pledged allegiance with Ching o sent royal family to Kanghwa which quickly fell · folk tales o popular in Choson 14 th to 19 th century o oral narratives o everyone consumed pop culture o normal people depicted in pop culture o shows importance of pop culture and everyone could see it · p’ansori o popular in 17 th century Choson o Korean operaish o Drummer o Narrator · t’alch’um o emerged in 12 th century Koryo o mask dance – usually satirical about government · Observations from the Countryside o 19 th century o Yu Chaegon wrote it during the Chinju uprising o Show biographies of non­Yangban o show that morality, goodness, self­cultivation, and sacrifice not limited to elites · Ch’oe Cheu o 19 th century Choson o Son of remarried widow o Founded To...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture