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U.S. History Notes Chapter 13Lesson 1Well before the war ended, President Roosevelt had begun to think about what the world would be like after the war. Roosevelt was determined to build a new economic and political system that would preserve the peace and promote economic growth in the world.President Roosevelt believed that high tariffs—like the Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1931—had helpedcause the Great Depression. He and his advisors were convinced that the best way to generate prosperity and economic growth after the war was to increase the amount of trade between countries.(The Bretton Woods System) In July 1944, Roosevelt organized a conference for the world’s nations except those that belonged to the Axis. The conference was held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire and established many international economic institutions that are still part of the world's economic system today. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the U.S. dollar became the world's reserve currency were formed at this conference—aka The Bretton Woods System.(The United Nations) Roosevelt wanted the United States and its allies to create a new international organization that would take an active role in preserving the peace. In 1944, at the Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington, D.C., delegates from 39 countries met to discuss the neworganization, which was to be called the United Nations (UN). On April 25, 1945, representatives from 50 countries came to San Francisco to officially organize the United Nations and design its charter.(Yalta Conference) In February 1945, with the war in Europe nearly over, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta—a Soviet resort on the Black Sea—to plan the postwar world A key issue discussed at Yalta was Poland. Shortly after the Germans had invaded Poland in 1939, the Polish government fled to Britain. In 1944, however, Soviet troops drove back the Germans and entered Poland. As they liberated Poland from German control, the Soviets encouraged Polish Communists to set up a new government. As a result, two governments claimed the right to govern Poland: one Communist and one non-Communist. Eventually, the three leaders compromised. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by the Soviets. Stalin agreed it would include members of the prewar Polish government, and free elections would be held as soon as possible. After reaching a compromise on Poland, the three leaders agreed to issue the Declaration of Liberated Europe. The declaration echoed the Atlantic Charter, asserting “the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live.” The conference then focused on Germany. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to divide Germany into four zones. Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France would each control one zone. Stalin also demanded that Germany pay heavy reparations for the war damages it had caused. An agreement was reached that Germany could pay war reparationswith trade goods and products, half of which would go to the Soviet Union.